4. CARBON AND ITS COMPOUNDS
Reactions of Ethanol
a. Reaction with sodium:
Alcohols react with sodium evolving hydrogen. E.g. Drop a small piece of sodium into pure ethanol. It produces sodium ethoxide (2CH3CH2O–Na+) & H2.
2Na + 2CH3CH2OH → 2CH3CH2O–Na+ + H2
b. Reaction to give unsaturated hydrocarbon:
Heating ethanol at 443 K with excess conc. H2SO4 results in dehydration of ethanol to give ethene. Conc. H2SO4 is a dehydrating agent (removes water from ethanol).
Reactions of ethanoic acid:
Esterification reaction: It is the formation of esters by the reaction of an acid and an alcohol.
b. Reaction with a base:
Ethanoic acid reacts with a base like NaOH to give a salt (sodium ethanoate or sodium acetate) and water.
NaOH + CH3COOH → CH3COONa + H2O
c. Reaction with carbonates & hydrogen carbonates:
2CH3COOH + Na2CO3 → 2CH3COONa + CO2 + H2O
Pass the gas produced through lime-water. Lime-water turns milky. It means that the gas is CO2.
Reaction with sodium hydrogen carbonate:
CH3COOH + NaHCO3 → CH3COONa + H2O + CO2