Thursday, April 29, 2021

Acids, Bases and Salts | Class 10 | Activity 2.15 with Solution

Activity 2.15  
  • Heat a few crystals of copper sulphate in a dry boiling tube.
  • What is the colour of the copper sulphate after heating?
  • Do you notice water droplets in the boiling tube? Where have these come from?
  • Add 2-3 drops of water on the sample of copper sulphate obtained after heating.
  • What do you observe? Is the blue colour of copper sulphate restored?

Acids, Bases and Salts | Class 10 | Activity 2.14 with Solution

Activity 2.14
  • Collect the following salt samples – sodium chloride, potassium nitrate, aluminium chloride, zinc sulphate, copper sulphate, sodium acetate, sodium carbonate and sodium hydrogencarbonate (some other salts available can also be taken).
  • Check their solubility in water (use distilled water only).
  • Check the action of these solutions on litmus and find the pH using a pH paper.
  • Which of the salts are acidic, basic or neutral?
  • Identify the acid or base used to form the salt.
  • Report your observations in Table 2.4.

Acids, Bases and Salts | Class 10 | Activity 2.13 with Solution

Activity 2.13  
  • Write the chemical formulae of the salts given below.
  • Potassium sulphate, sodium sulphate, calcium sulphate, magnesium sulphate, copper sulphate, sodium chloride, sodium nitrate, sodium carbonate and ammonium chloride.
  • Identify the acids and bases from which the above salts may be obtained.
  • Salts having the same positive or negative radicals are said to belong to a family. For example, NaCl and Na2SO4 belong to the family of sodium salts. Similarly, NaCl and KCl belong to the family of chloride salts. How many families can you identify among the salts given in this Activity?

Acids, Bases and Salts | Class 10 | Activity 2.12 with Solution

Activity 2.12  
  • Put about 2 g soil in a test tube and add 5 mL water to it.
  • Shake the contents of the test tube.
  • Filter the contents and collect the filtrate in a test tube.
  • Check the pH of this filtrate with the help of universal indicator paper.
  • What can you conclude about the ideal soil pH for the growth of plants in your region?

Acids, Bases and Salts | Class 10 | Activity 2.11 with Solution

Activity 2.11
  • Test the pH values of solutions given in Table 2.2.
  • Record your observations.
  • What is the nature of each substance on the basis of your observations?

Acids, Bases and Salts | Class 10 | Activity 2.10 with Solution

Activity 2.10 
  • Take 10 mL water in a beaker.
  • Add a few drops of concentrated H2SO4 to it and swirl the beaker slowly.
  • Touch the base of the beaker.
  • Is there a change in temperature?
  • Is this an exothermic or endothermic process?
  • Repeat the above Activity with sodium hydroxide pellets and record your observations

Acids, Bases and Salts | Class 10 | Activity 2.9 with Solution

Activity 2.9  
  • Take about 1g solid NaCl in a clean and dry test tube and set up the apparatus as shown in Fig. 2.4.
  • Add some concentrated sulphuric acid to the test tube.
  • What do you observe? Is there a gas coming out of the delivery tube?
  • Test the gas evolved successively with dry and wet blue litmus paper.
  • In which case does the litmus paper change colour?
  • On the basis of the above Activity, what do you infer about the acidic character of:
(i) dry HCl gas
(ii) HCl solution?

Acids, Bases and Salts | Class 10 | Activity 2.8 with Solution

Activity 2.8  
  • Take solutions of glucose, alcohol, hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid, etc.
  • Fix two nails on a cork, and place the cork in a 100 mL beaker.
  • Connect the nails to the two terminals of a 6 volt battery through a bulb and a switch, as shown in Fig. 2.3.
  • Now pour some dilute HCl in the beaker and switch on the current.
  • Repeat with dilute sulphuric acid.
  • What do you observe?
  • Repeat the experiment separately with glucose and alcohol solutions. What do you observe now?
  • Does the bulb glow in all cases?

Acids, Bases and Salts | Class 10 | Activity 2.7 with Solution

Activity 2.7
  • Take a small amount of copper oxide in a beaker and add dilute hydrochloric acid slowly while stirring.
  • Note the colour of the solution. What has happened to the copper oxide?

Acids, Bases and Salts | Class 10 | Activity 2.6 with Solution

Activity 2.6  
  • Take about 2 mL of dilute NaOH solution in a test tube and add two drops of phenolphthalein solution.
  • What is the colour of the solution?
  • Add dilute HCl solution to the above solution drop by drop.
  • Is there any colour change for the reaction mixture?
  • Why did the colour of phenolphthalein change after the addition of an acid?
  • Now add a few drops of NaOH to the above mixture.
  • Does the pink colour of phenolphthalein reappear?
  • Why do you think this has happened?