- The plant is described beginning with its habit, vegetative characters and then floral characters.
- Then a floral diagram and a floral formula are presented.
- Floral formula is represented by some symbols. They are
- Fusion is indicated by enclosing the figure within bracket and adhesion by a line drawn above the symbols of the floral parts.
- Floral formula also shows cohesion and adhesion within parts of whorls and in between whorls.
- A floral diagram gives information about the number of parts of a flower, their arrangement and relation.
Floral formula: ⊕⚥K2+2 C4 A2+4 G(2)
This family was earlier called Papilonoideae, a subfamily of family Leguminosae. It is distributed all over the world.
o Trees, shrubs, herbs; root with root nodules.
o Stem: Erect or climber.
o Leaves: Alternate, pinnately compound or simple; leaf base, pulvinate; stipulate; venation reticulate.
o Inflorescence: Racemose.
o Flower: Bisexual, zygomorphic.
o Calyx: Sepals five, gamosepalous; valvate/imbricate aestivation.
o Corolla: Petals five, polypetalous, papilionaceous, consisting of a posterior standard, two lateral wings, two anterior ones forming a keel (enclosing stamens and pistil), vexillary aestivation.
o Androecium: Ten, diadelphous, anther dithecous.
o Gynoecium: Ovary superior, mono carpellary, unilocular with many ovules, style single.
o Fruit: Legume; seed: one to many, non-endospermic.
o Floral Formula: %⚥K(5) C1+2+(2) A(9)+1 G1
o Pulses: E.g. gram, arhar, sem, moong, soyabean.
o Edible oil: E.g. soyabean, groundnut.
o Dye: E.g. Indigofera.
o Fibres: E.g. sun hemp.
o Fodder: E.g. Sesbania, Trifolium.
o Ornamentals: E.g. lupin, sweet pea.
o Medicine: E.g. muliathi.
2. Solanaceae (Potato family)
It is a large family. It is widely distributed in tropics, subtropics and even temperate zones.
o Plants mostly herbs, shrubs and small trees.
o Stem: Herbaceous rarely woody, aerial; erect, cylindrical, branched, solid or hollow, hairy or glabrous, underground stem in potato (Solanum tuberosum).
o Leaves: Alternate, simple, rarely pinnately compound, exstipulate; venation reticulate.
o Inflorescence: Solitary, axillary or cymose as in Solanum.
o Flower: Bisexual, actinomorphic.
o Calyx: Sepals five, united, persistent, valvate aestivation.
o Corolla: Petals five, united; valvate aestivation.
o Androecium: Stamens five, epipetalous.
o Gynoecium: Bicarpellary obligately placed, syncarpous; ovary superior, bilocular, placenta swollen with many ovules, axile.
o Fruits: Berry or capsule.
o Seeds: Many, endospermous.
o Food: E.g. tomato, brinjal, potato.
o Spice: E.g. chilli.
o Medicine: E.g. belladonna, ashwagandha.
o Fumigatory: E.g. tobacco.
o Ornamentals: E.g. petunia.
3. Lilaceae (Lily family)
A characteristic representative of monocotyledonous plants. It is distributed worldwide.
o Perennial herbs with underground bulbs/corms/ rhizomes.
o Leaves mostly basal, alternate, linear, exstipulate with parallel venation.
o Inflorescence: Solitary / cymose; often umbellate clusters.
o Flower: Bisexual; actinomorphic.
o Perianth tepal six (3+3), often united into tube; valvate aestivation.
o Androecium: Stamen six, (3+3).
o Gynoecium: Tricarpellary, syncarpous, ovary superior, trilocular with many ovules; axile placentation.
o Fruit: Capsule, rarely berry.
o Seed: Endospermous.
o Ornamentals: E.g. tulip, Gloriosa.
o Medicine: E.g. Aloe.
o Vegetables: E.g. Asparagus.
o Colchicines: E.g. Colchicum autumnale.