Wednesday, September 22, 2021

9. Heredity and Evolution | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes | Part 4: Evolution & Classification

EVOLUTION AND CLASSIFICATION

Evolutionary relationships of the species can be worked out by identifying hierarchies of their characteristics.

9. Heredity and Evolution | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes | Part 3: Speciation

SPECIATION

Minor genetic changes occurring in a population is called microevolution. They change common characteristics of a species. It cannot explain formation of new species.

9. Heredity and Evolution | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes | Part 2: Evolution

EVOLUTION

Sexual reproduction and errors in DNA copying lead to variation. Its consequences are illustrated below:

9. Heredity and Evolution | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes | Part 1: Accumulation of Variation, Heredity

Heredity (inheritance) is the transmission of characters from parents to offspring.

Evolution is the change in the characteristics of a species over several generations.

8. How do Organisms Reproduce? | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes | Part 4 | Sexual Reproduction in Human Beings

Reproduction in Human Beings

In early teenage, the appearance and proportions of body change and new features and sensations appear. These changes indicate the sexual maturation.

8. How do Organisms Reproduce? | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes | Part 3 | Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION


Why Sexual Mode of Reproduction?

It is the reproduction in which both sexes (male & female) are needed to produce new generations.

The errors during DNA copying creates variations.

8. How do Organisms Reproduce? | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes | Part 2 | Modes of Reproduction Used by Single Organisms

MODES OF REPRODUCTION USED BY SINGLE ORGANISMS


The modes of reproduction by various organisms depend on their body design.

8. How do Organisms Reproduce? | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes | Part 1 | Do Organisms Create Exact Copies of Themselves?

Reproduction is the production of offspring that are biologically similar to the parent organism.

Sunday, September 19, 2021

7. Control and Coordination | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes | Part 3 | Hormones in Animals

7. CONTROL AND COORDINATION

HORMONES IN ANIMALS (ENDOCRINE SYSTEM)


Electrical impulses can instruct only few tissues to prepare for an activity. So, in animals, there is another way of control & coordination called Endocrine system.

7. Control and Coordination | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes | Part 2 | Coordination in Plants

7. CONTROL AND COORDINATION

COORDINATION IN PLANTS


Plants have no nervous system or muscles. But they can respond to stimuli.

7. Control and Coordination | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes | Part 1 | Animals- Nervous System

7. CONTROL AND COORDINATION

In organisms, many movements are responses to changes in the environment or to use changes in environment. E.g.

6. Life Processes | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes | Part 4 | Transportation

6. LIFE PROCESSES

TRANSPORTATION


It is the process of movement of water and other molecules to the concerned parts of the organism.

6. Life Processes | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes | Part 5 | Excretion

6. LIFE PROCESSES

EXCRETION


Excretion is the process of removal of harmful metabolic nitrogenous wastes from the body.

6. Life Processes | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes | Part 3 | Respiration

6. LIFE PROCESSES

RESPIRATION


It is the oxidation of the food material in cells to release energy for various life processes.

6. Life Processes | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes | Part 1 | What are Life Processes?

6. LIFE PROCESSES

Organisms show many properties such as movement (growth-related or not). But the visible movement is not a defining characteristic of life because a plant may not grow visibly and some animals can breathe without visible movement.

6. Life Processes | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes | Part 2 | Nutrition

6. LIFE PROCESSES

NUTRITION


It is the process of transfer of energy source (food) from outside the body to the inside.

5. Periodic Classification of Elements | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes | Part 3 | Modern Periodic Table

 5. PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS


MAKING ORDER OUT OF CHAOS – THE MODERN PERIODIC TABLE


Henry Moseley (1913) showed that the atomic number (Z) is a more fundamental property than atomic mass.

5. Periodic Classification of Elements | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes | Part 2 | Mendeleev's Periodic Table

 5. PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS


MAKING ORDER OUT OF CHAOS – MENDELΓ‰EV’S PERIODIC TABLE


Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (1834-1907, a Russian chemist) was the most important contributor to the development of Periodic Table.

5. Periodic Classification of Elements | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes | Part 1 | Early Attempts of classification

 5. PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS


The elements are the substances that contain only one type of atoms.


At present, 118 elements are known. Of these, only 94 are naturally occurring.

Saturday, September 18, 2021

3. Metals and Non-metals | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes | Part 5 | Corrosion

3. METALS AND NON-METALS

CORROSION


-   Silver articles become black after some time when exposed to air. This is because it reacts with sulphur in the air to form a coating of silver sulphide.

3. Metals and Non-metals | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes | Part 4 | Occurrence of Metals

3. METALS AND NON-METALS

OCCURRENCE OF METALS


-   The earth’s crust is the major source of metals.

3. Metals and Non-metals | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes | Part 3 | How do Metals and Non-metals React?

3. METALS AND NON-METALS

HOW DO METALS AND NON-METALS REACT?


-   Noble gases have a completely filled valence shell. So they show little chemical activity.

3. Metals and Non-metals | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes | Part 2 | Chemical Properties

3. METALS AND NON-METALS

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS


What happens when metals burn in air?

-   Try to burn various metals (aluminium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, zinc and sodium) over a flame.

3. Metals and Non-metals | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes | Part 1 | Physical Properties

3. METALS AND NON-METALS

Elements can be classified as metals or non-metals on the basis of their physical and chemical properties.

4. Carbon and its Compounds | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes

πŸ‘‰ Part 1: Bonding in Carbon- the Covalent Bond
πŸ‘‰ Part 2: Versatile Nature of Carbon
πŸ‘‰ Part 3: Chemical properties of Carbon Compounds
πŸ‘‰ Part4: Some important Carbon Compounds
πŸ‘‰ Part 5: Soaps and Detergents

1. Chemical Reactions and Equations | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes

1. Chemical Reactions and Equations | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes | Part 2 | Types of Chemical Reactions

CHEMICAL REACTIONS & EQUATIONS

TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS


In a chemical reaction, atoms of one element do not change into atoms of another element. Nor do atoms disappear from the mixture or appear from elsewhere.

2. Acids, Bases and Salts | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes

Acids, Bases and Salts | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes | Part 4 | More about Salts

ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS

MORE ABOUT SALTS


Family of Salts

Salts having same positive or negative radicals belong to a family. E.g. NaCl & Na2SO4 belong to family of sodium salts. NaCl & KCl belong to the family of chloride salts.

Acids, Bases and Salts | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes | Part 3 | How strong are Acid or Base solutions?

ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS


HOW STRONG ARE ACID OR BASE SOLUTIONS?


Amount of H+ ions present in a solution can be measured by using a universal indicator. It is a mixture of several indicators. It shows different colours at different concentrations of hydrogen ions.

Acids, Bases and Salts | Class 10 CBSE | Web Notes | Part 2 | What do all Acids and Bases have in common?

ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS

WHAT DO ALL ACIDS AND ALL BASES HAVE IN COMMON?


All acids have similar chemical properties.

Light-Reflection and Refraction | Class 10 PDF Notes | NCERT

Class 10 PDF Notes | NCERT

πŸ‘‰ Light- Reflection & Refraction

Friday, September 17, 2021

T-10 | Chemical Coordination and Integration | Topic-wise Basic level questions

Chemical Coordination and Integration

    • Topic 1: Hypothalamus, Pituitary and Pineal Glands
    • Topic 2: Thyroid and Parathyroid
    • Topic 3: Thymus, Adrenals and Pancreas
    • Topic 4: Testis, Ovary, Hormones of Heart, Kidney & Gastrointestinal Tract
    • Topic 5: Mechanism of Hormone Action

T-10 | Neural Control and Coordination | Topic-wise Basic level questions

Neural Control and Coordination

    • Topic 1: Structure of Neuron
    • Topic 2: Generation and Conduction of Nerve Impulse
    • Topic 3: Human Neural System - CNS
    • Topic 4: Human Neural System - PNS, Reflex Action
    • Topic 5: Sense Organs - Eye
    • Topic 6: Sense Organs - Ear, Nose, Tongue, Skin

T-10 | Locomotion and Movement | Topic-wise Basic level questions

Locomotion and Movement

    • Topic 1: Human Muscular System
    • Topic 2: Mechanism of Muscle Contraction
    • Topic 3: Human Skeletal System
    • Topic 4: Joints, Disorders of Muscular & Skeletal Systems

T-10 | Excretory Products & their Elimination | Topic-wise Basic level questions

Excretory Products & their Elimination

    • Topic 1: Types of Excretion and Excretory Organs
    • Topic 2: Human Excretory System
    • Topic 3: Urine Formation, Micturition
    • Topic 4: Regulation of Kidney Function
    • Topic 5: Disorders of Excretory System

T-10 | Body Fluids and Circulation | Topic-wise Basic level questions

Body Fluids and Circulation

    • Topic 1: Circulatory Pathways
    • Topic 2: Blood Vascular System - Blood & Blood Vessels
    • Topic 3: Blood Vascular System - Heart
    • Topic 4: Cardiac Cycle, ECG, Double Circulation
    • Topic 5: Lymphatic System, Disorders of Circulatory System

T-10 | Breathing and Exchange of Gases | Topic-wise Basic level questions

Breathing and Exchange of Gases

    • Topic 1: Human Respiratory System
    • Topic 2: Mechanism of Respiration
    • Topic 3: Gas Exchange
    • Topic 4: Gas Transport
    • Topic 5: Regulation of Respiration, Respiratory Disorders

T-10 | Digestion and Absorption | Topic-wise Basic level questions

Digestion and Absorption

    • Topic 1: Alimentary Canal
    • Topic 2: Digestive Glands
    • Topic 3: Digestion and Absorption of Food
    • Topic 4: Disorders of Digestive System

T-10 | Plant Growth and Development | Topic-wise Basic level questions

Plant Growth and Development 

  • Topic 1: Growth
  • Topic 2: Differentiation, Dedifferentiation, Redifferentiation, Development
  • Topic 3: Plant Hormones
  • Topic 4: Role of Light and Temperature on Flowering

T-10 | Respiration in plants | Topic-wise Basic level questions

Respiration in plants 

  • Topic 1: Breathing in Plants
  • Topic 2: Glycolysis
  • Topic 3: Fermentation (Anaerobic Respiration)
  • Topic 4: Aerobic Respiration
  • Topic 5: Respiratory Balance Sheet, Amphibolic Pathway, RQ

T-10 | Photosynthesis | Topic-wise Basic level questions

Photosynthesis 

  • Topic 1: Photosynthesis- Experiments
  • Topic 2: Photosynthesis- Site and Pigments
  • Topic 3: Light Reaction
  • Topic 4: Dark Reaction
  • Topic 5: Factors Affecting Photosynthesis

T-10 | Mineral Nutrition | Topic-wise Basic level questions

Mineral Nutrition

  • Topic 1: Essential Mineral Elements
  • Topic 2: Mechanism of Absorption of Elements
  • Topic 3: Metabolism of Nitrogen

T-10 | Transport in plants | Topic-wise Basic level questions

Transport in plants  

  • Topic 1: Means of Transport
  • Topic 2: Plant - Water Relations
  • Topic 3: Long distance Transport of Water
  • Topic 4: Transpiration
  • Topic 5: Uptake and Transport of Mineral Nutrients, Phloem Transport

T-10 | Cell cycle and Cell division | Topic-wise Basic level questions

Cell cycle and Cell division 

  • Topic 1: Cell Cycle
  • Topic 2: Mitosis
  • Topic 3: Meiosis

T-10 | Cell-The unit of Life | Topic-wise Basic level questions

Cell-The unit of Life 

  • Topic 1: Cell Theory, Overview of cells
  • Topic 2: Prokaryotic cell
  • Topic 3: Eukaryotic cell - 1
  • Topic 4: Eukaryotic cell - 2

T-10 | Anatomy of flowering plants | Topic-wise Basic level questions

Anatomy of flowering plants 

  • Topic 1: The Tissues
  • Topic 2: The Tissue System
  • Topic 3: Anatomy of Dicot and monocot plants
  • Topic 4: Secondary Growth

T-10 | Morphology of flowering plants | Topic-wise Basic level questions

3. Morphology of flowering plants

  • Topic 1: The Root
  • Topic 2: The Stem
  • Topic 3: The Leaf
  • Topic 4: The Flower and Inflorescence
  • Topic 5: The Fruit and Seed
  • Topic 6: Plant Families

T-10 | Environmental issues | Topic-wise Basic level questions

Environmental issues

    • Topic 1: Air Pollution and its Control
    • Topic 2: Water pollution and its Control
    • Topic 3: Wastes and their Effects
    • Topic 4: Greenhouse Effects, Global Warming, Ozone Depletion
    • Topic 5: Degradation by Improper Resource Utilization

T-10 | Ecosystem | Topic-wise Basic level questions

Ecosystem

    • Topic 1: Ecosystem- Structure and Function
    • Topic 2: Productivity, Decomposition
    • Topic 3: Energy Flow
    • Topic 4: Ecological Pyramids
    • Topic 5: Ecological Succession
    • Topic 6: Nutrient Cycling, Ecosystem Services

T-10 | Organisms and Populations | Topic-wise Basic level questions

Organisms and Populations

    • Topic 1: Organisms and its Environment
    • Topic 2: Responses to Abiotic Factors
    • Topic 3: Populations
    • Topic 4: Population Growth
    • Topic 5: Population Interactions

T-10 | Biotechnology and its Applications | Topic-wise Basic level questions

Biotechnology and its Applications

    • Topic 1: Applications in Agriculture
    • Topic 2: Applications in Medicine
    • Topic 3: Transgenic Animals, Ethical Issues

T-10 | Biotechnology: Principles and processes | Topic-wise Basic level questions

Biotechnology: Principles and Processes

    • Topic 1: Principles of Biotechnology
    • Topic 2: Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology
    • Topic 3: Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology

T-10 | Strategies for enhancement in food production | Topic-wise Basic level questions

Strategies for enhancement in food production
    • Topic 1: Animal Husbandry
    • Topic 2: Plant Breeding
    • Topic 3: Single Cell Proteins and Tissue Culture

T-10 | Sexual reproduction in flowering plants | Topic-wise Basic level questions

Sexual reproduction in flowering plants
    • Topic 1: Structure of Flower
    • Topic 2: Pollination
    • Topic 3: Fertilization and post-fertilization events

T-10 | Reproduction in organisms | Topic-wise Basic level questions

Reproduction in organisms
    • Topic 1: Asexual Reproduction
    • Topic 2: Sexual Reproduction
    • Topic 3: Events in Sexual Reproduction

Basic Level Test Series (T-10) | for Class 11 | Plant Kingdom

Plant kingdom

HSE | T-10 | Plant Kingdom | Gymnosperms, Angiosperms, Plant life cycles

BASIC LEVEL ONLINE TEST SERIES

HSE | T-10 | Plant Kingdom | Bryophytes & Pteridophytes

BASIC LEVEL ONLINE TEST SERIES

Tuesday, September 7, 2021

HSE Plus 1 Zoology | Chemical Coordination and Integration | Online exam | Focus Area

HSE Plus 1 Zoology | Neural Control and Coordination | Online exam | Focus Area

HSE Plus 1 Zoology | Locomotion and Movement| Online exam | Focus Area

HSE Plus 1 Zoology | Excretory Products and their Elimination | Online exam | Focus Area

HSE Plus 1 Zoology | Body Fluids and Circulation | Online exam | Focus Area

HSE Plus 1 Zoology | Breathing and Exchange of Gases | Online exam | Focus Area

HSE Plus 1 Zoology | Digestion and Absorption | Online exam | Focus Area

HSE Plus 1 Zoology | Biomolecules | Online exam | Focus Area

HSE Plus 1 Zoology | Structural Organisation in Animals | Online exam | Focus Area

HSE Plus 1 Zoology | Animal Kingdom | Online exam | Focus Area

HSE Plus 1 Zoology | The Living World | Online exam | Focus Area

Focus Area Online Tests | Class 11 Biology

FOCUS AREA ONLINE TESTS

Frequently used root words in biology - 8 (Miscellaneous)

FREQUENTLY USED ROOT WORDS MISCELLANEOUS

Learning root words and their meaning help you to understand and remember biology terms very easily. Given below is the table showing frequently used root words (Miscellaneous). Try to memorize them and practice the problems below.