Sunday, August 9, 2020

Locomotion and Movement - Notes | Class 11 | Part 4: Joints, Disorders of Muscular & Skeletal Systems

20. LOCOMOTION AND MOVEMENT 

JOINTS


Joints are points of contact between bones, or between bones and cartilages. 3 types:
  1. Fibrous (immovable) joints: E.g. sutures b/w skull bones.
  2. Cartilaginous joints (Slightly movable joints): Bones are joined together with the help of cartilages. E.g. Joints between the adjacent vertebrae.
  3. Synovial (movable) joints: They have a fluid filled synovial cavity between articulating surfaces of 2 bones.
Types of synovial joint 

Joint

Examples

Ball & socket

Shoulder joint & hip joints.

Hinge joint

Knee joint, elbow joint, phalanges joints

Pivot joint

Joints b/w atlas & axis.

Gliding joint

Joints b/w carpals

Saddle joint

Joints b/w carpal & metacarpal of thumb



DISORDERS OF MUSCULAR & SKELETAL SYSTEMS

  • Myasthenia gravis: An auto immune disorder that affects neuromuscular junction. It leads to fatigue, weakening and paralysis of skeletal muscles.
  • Muscular dystrophy: Progressive degeneration of skeletal muscles. Mostly due to genetic disorder.
  • Tetany: Rapid muscle spasm due to low Ca2+ in body fluid.
  • Arthritis: Inflammation of joints.
  • Osteoporosis: Age-related disorder characterized by decreased bone mass and increased chances of fractures. Decreased level of estrogen is a common cause.
  • Gout: Inflammation of joints due to accumulation of uric acid crystals.
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