Showing posts from March, 2012

Cnidaria (Coelenterata)

Hydra Hydra Obelia Obelia Gorgonia (Sea fan) Aurelia (Jelly fish) Pennatula (Sea pen) Adamsia (Sea anemone) Tubipora Physalia Brain coral (Meandrina) Coral reef���������…

Digestion and Absorption

Click here for PDF Nutrition is the getting and utilization of energy rich nutrients (food) by an organism. Food provides energy for life activities, materials for growth, maintains body temperature and repair tissues. Food c…

Breathing and Exchange of gases

Click here for PDF Respiration  is the oxidation of nutrients in the living cells to release energy for biological work. Breathing is the exchange of O 2  from the atmosphere with CO 2  produced by the cells.

Body fluids and Circulation

Click here for PDF Circulation  is the transport of nutrients, oxygen, CO 2  and excretory products to the concerned tissues or organs. For circulation, simple organisms  (sponges ,  coelenterates   etc)  use water fro…

Excretory Products and their Elimination

Click here for PDF Excretion is the elimination of metabolic wastes like ammonia, urea, uric acid etc. from the tissues. It is 3 types: 1.   Ammonotelism:  Process of excretion of NH 3 . Ammonotelic animals:  Aquatic inve…

Locomotion and movement

Click here for PDF Locomotion  is the voluntary movements resulting in a change in location. Types of movement in human being · Amoeboid movement:  By pseudopodia. E.g. Macrophages, leucocytes, cytoskeletal elements like…

Neural control and co-ordination

NERVOUS (NEURAL) SYSTEM -     Controls and coordinates the body activities.  -     Conducts and integrates the information. -      Responses to stimuli.

Chemical co-ordination

Click here for PDF Endocrine system includes  endocrine glands  and their secretions  (hormones). Hormones are non-nutrient chemicals that act as intercellular messengers and are produced in trace amounts.

Structural Organization in Animals

Click here for PDF   ANIMAL TISSUES A group of cells having  same origin, structure and function  are called the  tissues.  Animal tissues  are 4 types: (i)     Epithelial             (ii)   Connective (iii)   Muscula…

The Living World

Life is a unique, complex organization of molecules, expressing through chemical reactions which lead to growth, development, responsiveness, adaptation & reproduction.

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