Anatomy of Flowering Plants | Class 11 | Previous Years Questions and Answers (Web and PDF)


2020 MARCH

1.   Choose the correct answer. Casparian strips are present in:   (Score 1)

a.  Dicot root                 

b.  Dicot stem                

c.  Dicot leaf                  

d.  Monocot stem


a) Dicot root

2.  Observe the figure given below:

Write any three features on mesophyll cells from the figure.


Mesophyll tissue is made up of parenchyma. They contain chloroplasts. It has 2 types of cells:

·   Palisade parenchyma: It is adaxially placed. Made up of elongated cells.

·   Spongy parenchyma: Oval or round and loosely arranged. Situated below the palisade cells and extends to the lower epidermis.


1.  The following are the anatomical features of flowering plants. Arrange these features in the table given below: (Score 3)

                  i.      Exarch xylem

                ii.      Presence of hypodermis

              iii.      Palisade parenchyma cells

              iv.      Conjoint and open vascular bundles

                v.      Endodermis with casparian strips

              vi.      Large empty bulliform cells











·   Presence of hypodermis

·   Conjoint and open vascular bundles

·   Exarch xylem

·   Endodermis with casparian strips

·   Palisade parenchyma cells

·   Large empty bulliform cells

2019 MARCH

1.   Notice the three simple tissues given below.

a.   Sclerenchyma          

b.   Parenchyma            

c.   Collenchyma

Identify and write the tissue that consists of cells that are thickened at the corners. Write the function of this tissue. (Score 3)


c) Collenchyma

Functions: They provide mechanical support to the growing parts such as young stem and petiole of a leaf. The cells having chloroplasts assimilate food.

2.   Observe the terms given below.

Xylem, Root hairs, Pith, Stomata,

Cambium, Bulliform cells

From this, identify and write the structures seen in epidermal tissue system. Write their functions. (Hint: 3 structures).


Root hair: Absorption of water and minerals.

Stomata: Transpiration.

Bulliform cells: Rolling and unrolling of leaves to reduce surface area.


1.   Choose the CORRECT answer.            (Score 1)

All tissues on the inner side of the endodermis together constitute.

a)      Conjunctive tissue

b)      Stele

c)       Pericycle

d)      Vascular bundle


b) Stele

2.       Observe the T.S. of a plant p given below.

Identify the plant part and explain any two (features of its vascular bundles).                   (Score 2)


Dicot stem.

Features of vascular bundles: Conjoint, open, cambium present.

2018 MARCH

1.   Complete the flowchart given below. (Score 2)


a) Secondary xylem               

b) Metaxylem

c) Exarch                                  

d) Stem

2.  The tissue found between the upper and lower epidermis of a leaf is called mesophyll. (Score 3)

a)  Write the type of cells found in this tissue in a dicot leaf.

b)  Mention two differences between a dicot leaf and monocot leaf.


a) Palisade parenchyma and spongy parenchyma.


Dicot leaf

Monocot leaf

Stomata on lower epidermis.

Stomata on both surfaces of the epidermis.

Dorsiventral leaf.

Isobilateral leaf.

Bulliform cells absent.

Bulliform cells present.


1.   Parenchyma is a tissue for storage, sclerenchyma is a tissue for ............        (Score 1)


Mechanical support or rigidity.

2.   The following are the characters of dicot stem and monocot stem. Identify the characters and write in appropriate column.

a) Sclerenchymatous hypodermis

b) Collenchymatous hypodermis

c) Vascular bundles are conjoint, closed

d) Vascular bundles are arranged in a ring. (Score 2)


Dicot stem

Monocot stem

b) Collenchymatous hypodermis

d) Vascular bundles are arranged in a ring.

a) Sclerenchymatous hypodermis

c) Vascular bundles are conjoint, closed

2017 MARCH

1.   a)  The tissues involve in secondary growth of dicot plants are vascular cambium and ..................

b)  Compare the formation of vascular cambia in dicot stem and dicot root.             (Score 3)


a) Cork cambium

b) In dicot stems, cells of cambium present between primary xylem & primary phloem is intrafascicular cambium. Cells of medullary cells, adjoining this intrafascicular cambium become meristematic and form the interfascicular cambium. Thus, a continuous ring of cambium is formed.

    In dicot root, the vascular cambium is completely secondary in origin. It originates from the tissue located just below the phloem bundles, a portion of pericycle tissue above the protoxylem forming a complete and continuous wavy ring and later become circular.

2016 MARCH

1.  How does periderm develop in dicot stem and replace the outer broken cortical and epidermal layers? (Score 3)


In dicot stem, both intrafascicular and interfascicular cambium form a ring of vascular cambium. Explain the activity of this cambial ring.        (Score 3)


Due to the activity of vascular cambium, girth of the stem increases. This results the breakdown of outer cortical and epidermis layers. So the new protective tissues are formed by another meristematic tissue called cork cambium or phellogen. Phellogen cuts off cells on both sides. The outer cells differentiate into cork or phellem while the inner cells differentiate into secondary cortex or phelloderm.

Phellogen, phellem, and phelloderm are collectively known as periderm.


The cambial ring cut off new cells towards the inner (secondary xylem) and the outer sides (secondary phloem). The cambium is more active on the inner side than on the outer.

Amount of secondary xylem produced is more than secondary phloem. The primary and secondary phloems get gradually crushed due to the continued formation and accumulation of secondary xylem.


1.   Identify the types of vascular bundles in figure 1 & 2. Write the features of each vascular bundle. (Hint: Any 2 points each) (Score 3)


Fig.1: Conjoint closed.           

Fig.2: Conjoint open.

  •    Conjoint Open type: In this, cambium is present between phloem and xylem. So vascular bundles can form secondary xylem and phloem tissues. Xylem & phloem are jointly situated at the same radius of vascular bundles. E.g. dicotyledonous stems.
  •   Conjoint Closed type: In this, cambium is absent. Hence, they do not form secondary tissues. Xylem & phloem are jointly situated at the same radius of vascular bundles. E.g. monocotyledons.


Distinguish between leaf anatomy of dicot leaf and monocot leaf. (Hint: Any three points each)


Dicot leaf

Monocot leaf

o Stomata are more in abaxial epidermis and fewer or absent in adaxial epidermis.

o Mesophyll is differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma.

o Bulliform cells absent.

o Stomata are present on both surfaces of epidermis.

o Mesophyll is not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma.

o Bulliform cells present.

2015 MARCH

1.   In a dicotyledonous stem, secondary growth takes place at two regions by the activity of two lateral meristems.

a) Identify the two lateral meristems. (Score 1)
b) List the new tissues formed from each of these meristems. (Score 2)


a) Vascular cambium & cork cambium.

b) Vascular cambium → Secondary xylem & Secondary phloem.

Cork cambium → cork (phellem) & secondary cortex (phelloderm).


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