Digestion and Absorption - Notes | Class 11 | Part 4: Disorders of Digestive System



1. Jaundice: Here, the skin and eye turns yellow due to the deposition of bile pigments. It indicates liver damage.

2. Vomiting: Ejection of stomach content through mouth. It is controlled by medulla oblongata.

3. Diarrhoea: Frequent elimination of watery faeces. It reduces the absorption of food.

4. Constipation: Infrequent elimination of dry stool. It is due to decreased peristalsis in colon.

5. Indigestion: Condition leading to feeling of fullness due to improper digestion. It is due to anxiety, inadequate enzyme secretion, food poisoning, spicy food etc.

6. Protein-Energy malnutrition (PEM): It is the dietary deficiencies of proteins & food calories.

PEM causes Marasmus & Kwashiorkor in children.

· Marasmus: It is due to deficiency of both proteins and calories. It is found in infants less than a year in age.

  Reason: Replacement of mother’s milk by foods with poor proteins and caloric value. This often happens if mother has second pregnancy or child birth when the older infant is still too young.

   Symptoms: Impaired growth and replacement of tissue proteins; extreme emaciation of the body, thin limbs, dry, thin and wrinkled skin, declined growth rate and body weight, impaired growth and development of brain and mental faculties.

·  Kwashiorkor: It is due to protein deficiency only.

  Reason: Replacement of mother’s milk by a high calorie-low protein diet in a child more than one year in age.

  Symptoms: Like marasmus, it shows wasting of muscles, thinning of limbs, failure of growth & brain development. Unlike marasmus, some fat is still under the skin; extensive oedema and swelling of body parts are seen.


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