BIOTECHNOLOGY- PRINCIPLES AND PROCESSES
1. Jaya read in a Biotechnology book that alien DNA can be introduced into host cell by microinjection and biolistics. Explain these methods. (2)
2. Genetic engineering includes creation of recombinant DNA with the help of restriction enzymes.
a. Explain recombinant DNA technology.
b. What are restriction enzymes? Name a restriction enzyme. (2)
1. Gel electrophoresis is a technique to separate fragments of DNA from a mixture. Some of the events of electrophoresis are given below. Arrange the events in order: (3)
a. Cut out DNA bands
b. Expose to UV
c. Force DNA to move through gel
d. Stain DNA with ethidium bromide
2. (b) Identify palindrome sequence from the following. (1)
1. ------------ are the enzymes used for cutting the DNA molecule into fragments. An example for this type of enzyme is Eco RI. What does Eco, R and I stand for? (2)
2. Use of a thermostable DNA polymerase from the bacterium, Thermus aquaticus, made it possible to generate billion copies of DNA in a very short time using a process.
a. Name the process (½)
b. Name the three important steps involved in this process. (1½)
1. Consider you are appointed as biotechnologist in a National Institute. What are the basic steps to be designed to produce a genetically modified organism? (Hint: 3 points) (2)
2. There are many features required to facilitate successful cloning into a vector. Write shortly any two such features required by a vector. (2)
1. Figure representing the reactions associated with Polymer Chain Reaction (PCR). Name the steps A, B, C in the process. (Score: 2)
2. Recombinant DNA technology can be accomplished only if we have the following key tools i.e. Restriction enzymes. Polymerase enzyme, Ligases and Vectors.
State the functions of (a) Ligases (b) Restriction enzymes (Scores: 1 + 1 = 2)
1. Observe the cloning vector and explain the following:
a. Ori b. BAM HI (Scores: 1+1 = 2)