Plant Kingdom | Class 11 | One-Word Answer type Questions | Topic - wise

Topic 1: SYSTEMS OF BIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION

Q 1: Earliest systems of classification are known as

✅ Artificial classification systems

Q 2: Which classification systems are based on vegetative characters or superficial morphological characters such as habit, colour, number and shape of leaves, etc.?

✅ Artificial classification systems

Q 3: Linnaeus’s artificial system of classification was based on the ………………… structure.

✅ Androecium

Q 4: Separation of the closely related species and giving equal weightage to vegetative & sexual characteristics are the drawbacks of

✅ Artificial classification systems

Q 5: Which classification systems are based on natural affinities among organisms and consider external features and internal features?

✅ Natural classification systems

Q 6: Classification for flowering plants given by George Bentham & Joseph Dalton Hooker is an example for

✅ Natural classification system

Q 7: ………………. classification systems are based on evolutionary relationships among organisms.

✅ Phylogenetic

Q 8: What type of taxonomy is based on all observable characteristics, utilizes computers for analysis, assigns codes to these characteristics, and then processes the data to classify organisms?

✅ Numerical Taxonomy

Q 9: ……………. is based on cytological information like chromosome number, structure, behaviour etc.

✅ Cytotaxonomy

Q 10: Which taxonomical system uses chemical constituents of plants?

✅ Chemotaxonomy

Topic 2: ALGAE

Q 11: Name the plant group which includes simple, thalloid, autotrophic, chlorophyll-bearing and aquatic organisms.

✅ Algae

Q 12: Association of algae with fungi is called

✅ Lichen

Q 13: Name an animal on which some algae live.

✅ Sloth bear

Q 14: Name a microscopic unicellular alga.

Chlamydomonas

Q 15: Name a colonial alga.

Volvox

Q 16: Give an example for filamentous alga.

Ulothrix, Spirogyra

Q 17: Vegetative reproduction of algae is by

✅ Fragmentation

Q 18: Most common asexual spores of algae are

✅ Zoospores

Q 19: Name an alga which is isogamous and has flagellated gametes.

Ulothrix

Q 20: Name an alga which is isogamous and has non-flagellated gametes.

Spirogyra

Q 21: Give an example for alga which shows anisogamous sexual reproduction.

Eudorina

Q 22: Give an example for alga which shows oogamous sexual reproduction.

Volvox, Fucus

Q 23: ………………. are primary producers and the basis of the food cycles of all aquatic animals.

✅ Algae

Q 24: Name an alga that is used as food.

Porphyra / Laminaria / Sargassum

Q 25: Agar from Gelidium and ………………. is used to grow microbes and in ice-creams and jellies.

Gracilaria

Q 26: Name the hydrocolloid (water holding substances) produced by brown algae.

✅ Algin

Q 27: Name the hydrocolloid (water holding substances) produced by red algae.

✅ Carrageen

Q 28: Protein-rich unicellular algae like Chlorella & ………………. are used as food supplements by space travelers.

Spirulina

Q 29: Chlorophyceae is also known as ……………….

✅ Green algae

Q 30: Name the major pigments in Chlorophyceae.

✅ Chlorophyll a and b

Q 31: Name the storage bodies of present in most green algae.

✅ Pyrenoids

Q 32: What is the inner layer of the green algae cell wall made of?

✅ Cellulose

Q 33: What is the outer layer of the green algae cell wall made of?

✅ Pectose

Q 34: How many flagella do most green algae have?

✅ 2 to 8

Q 35: Chlamydomonas, Volvox, Ulothrix, Spirogyra & Chara are examples for the algal group ……………….

✅ Chlorophyceae

Q 36: Phaeophyceae is also known as

✅ Brown algae

Q 37: Name the brown alga which is profusely branched and 100 m in height.

✅ Kelps

Q 38: Name the algal group which has chlorophyll a, c, carotenoids & xanthophylls.

✅ Phaeophyceae

Q 39: Brown algae vary in colour from olive green to brown based on the amount of a xanthophyll pigment ………………

✅ Fucoxanthin

Q 40: In brown algae, food is stored as complex carbohydrates such as ……………….

✅ Laminarin & mannitol

Q 41: The vegetative cells of Brown algae have a cellulosic wall covered by a gelatinous coating of

✅ Algin

Q 42: Plant body is attached to substratum by a holdfast, and has a stalk (stipe) & leaf like photosynthetic organ (frond). Identify the algal group.

✅ Phaeophyceae

Q 43: Ectocarpus, Dictyota, Laminaria, Sargassum & Fucus are examples for algal group ……………….

✅ Phaeophyceae

Q 44: In brown algae, the structure for asexual reproduction is pear-shaped and biflagellate ……………….

✅ Zoospores

Q 45: In brown algae, shape of gametes is typically

✅ Pyriform (pear-shaped)

Q 46: What pigment gives red algae (Rhodophyceae) its color?

✅ Phycoerythrin

Q 47: What are the types of chlorophylls present in red algae?

✅ Chlorophyll a & d

Q 48: Cell wall of red algae is made up of Cellulose, pectin and ……………….

✅ Poly sulphate esters

Q 49: In red algae, the food is stored as ………………. which is very similar to amylopectin and glycogen in structure.

✅ Floridean starch

Q 50: Give an example of a red algae genus.

Polysiphonia/ Porphyra/Gracilaria/Gelidium

Q 51: In red algae, vegetative reproduction is by

✅ Fragmentation

Q 52: In red algae, asexual reproduction is by

✅ Non-motile spores

Q 53: What type of sexual reproduction do red algae use?

✅ Oogamous

Topic 3: BRYOPHYTES

Q 54: ……………. are called amphibians of the plant kingdom because they can live in soil but need water for sexual reproduction.

✅ Bryophytes

Q 55: The body algae is thallus-like and prostrate or erect, and attached to the substratum by unicellular or multicellular ……………….

✅ Rhizoids

Q 56: Name the group of plants which lack true roots, stem or leaves and may possess root-like, leaf-like or stem-like structures.

✅ Bryophytes

Q 57: The main plant body of bryophytes is haploid which produces gametes, hence is called a

✅ Gametophyte

Q 58: The male sex organ of bryophytes is antheridium produces biflagellate ………………

✅ Antherozoids

Q 59: The female sex organ of bryophytes is called …………... which is flask-shaped and produces a single egg.

✅ Archegonium

Q 60: In bryophytes, zygotes do not undergo meiosis immediately. They produce a multicellular body called a ……………….

✅ Sporophyte

Q 61: Peat obtained from ………………. is used as packing material for trans-shipment of living material.

Sphagnum

Q 62: ………………. from Sphagnum can hold more water to maintain moisture around the living material or specimens or seedlings.

✅ Peat

Q 63: Bryophytes are ecologically important because of their role in ………………. on bare rocks/soil.

✅ Plant succession

Q 64: Mosses along with ………………. decompose rocks making the substrate suitable for the growth of higher plants.

✅ Lichens

Q 65: The bryophytes are divided into liverworts and ……………….

✅ Mosses

Q 66: Give an example for liverworts.

Marchantia

Q 67: In mosses, asexual reproduction is by fragmentation of thalli, or by the formation of

✅ Gemmae

Q 68: Gemmae are green, multicellular, asexual buds that develop in small receptacles called ………………. on the thalli.

✅ Gemma cups

Q 69: The predominant stage of the life cycle of a moss/bryophyte is the ……………….

✅ Gametophyte

Q 70: The first filamentous stage of gametophyte of a moss which develops directly from a spore is called ……………….

✅ Protonema stage

Q 71: The second stage of gametophyte of a moss which develops from the secondary protonema as a lateral bud is called ……………….

✅ Leafy stage

Q 72: In mosses, vegetative reproduction occurs by fragmentation and budding in the ……………….

✅ Secondary protonema

Q 73: The development of a zygote into a sporophyte, consisting of a foot, seta, and capsule, is a characteristic feature of ……………….

✅ Bryophytes

Q 74: Give an example for mosses.

Funaria / Polytrichum / Sphagnum

Topic 4: PTERIDOPHYTES

Q 75: ………………. include horsetails and ferns.

✅ Pteridophytes

Q 76: Evolutionarily, ………………. are the first terrestrial plants to possess vascular tissues.

✅ Pteridophytes

Q 77: In pteridophytes, the dominant phase is a ……………….

✅ Sporophyte

Q 78: The leaves in pteridophytes such as Selaginella are small and are called

✅ Microphylls

Q 79: The leaves in pteridophytes such as ferns are large and are called

✅ Macrophylls

Q 80: The sporophytes bear sporangia that are subtended by leaf-like appendages called

✅ Sporophylls

Q 81: In some cases, sporophylls may form distinct compact structures called

✅ Strobili or cones

Q 82: ………………. produce spores by meiosis in spore mother cells.

✅ Sporangia

Q 83: In pteridophytes, the spores germinate to give inconspicuous, small, multicellular, free-living, mostly photosynthetic thalloid gametophytes called

✅ Prothallus

Q 84: The gametophytes (prothallus) bear male and female sex organs called antheridia and ………………, respectively.

✅ Archegonia

Q 85: Water is needed for transfer of …………………... to the mouth of archegonium.

✅ Antherozoids

Q 86: Most of the pteridophytes produce similar kinds of spores. So they are called

✅ Homosporous plants

Q 87: Some pteridophytes produce two kinds of spores, macro (mega) & micro spores. They are called

✅ Heterosporous

Q 88: Give an example for heterosporous pteridophytes.

Selaginella / Salvinia

Q 89: The ………………. & ………………. germinate and give rise to female and male gametophytes, respectively.

✅ Megaspores & microspores

Q 90: In which group of plants does the zygote develop into a young embryo within the female gametophyte, marking an important evolutionary step towards the seed habit?

✅ Pteridophytes

Q 91: The pteridophyte Psilotum belongs to the class Psilopsida whereas Selaginella & Lycopodium belongs to the class

✅ Lycopsida

Q 92: The pteridophyte Equisetum belongs to the class ……………….

✅ Sphenopsida

Q 93: The pteridophytes Dryopteris, Pteris, Adiantum belongs to the class ……………….

✅ Pteropsida

Topic 5: GYMNOSPERMS

Q 94: 94. What type of plants have ovules that are not enclosed by the ovary wall and remain exposed before and after fertilization?

✅ Gymnosperms

Q 95: The tallest tree species of gymnosperms is

✅ Sequoia (giant redwood)

Q 96: The roots of Gymnosperms are generally

✅ Tap roots

Q 97: Roots in some Gymnosperms such as Pinus have fungal association in the form of

✅ Mycorrhiza

Q 98: In plants like Cycas, small specialized roots called ………………… are associated with N2- fixing cyanobacteria.

✅ Coralloid roots

Q 99: Give an example for a gymnosperm with unbranched stems.

Cycas

Q 100: Give an example for a gymnosperm with branched stems.

Pinus / Cedrus

Q 101: In ………………., the pinnate leaves persist for a few years.

Cycas

Q 102: In which group of plants do needle-like leaves, thick cuticles, and sunken stomata help reduce water loss?

✅ Conifers (Pinus, Cedrus etc.)

Q 103: Gymnosperms produce haploid microspores and megaspores. So they are called

✅ Heterosporous

Q 104: Some leaves are modified into ………………. which are compactly and spirally arranged along an axis to form lax or strobili or cones.

✅ Sporophylls

Q 105: Sporophylls bear ………………. in which spores are produced.

✅ Sporangia

Q 106: Microsporophylls are arranged to

✅ Male strobili

Q 107: Microsporophylls bear ……………….

✅ Microsporangia

Q 108: The microspores develop into male gametophytes. This gametophyte is called

✅ Pollen grain

Q 109: The pollen grains are developed within the ……………….

✅ Microsporangia

Q 110: Megasporophylls are arranged to

✅ Female strobili

Q 111: Megasporophylls bear ……………….

✅ Megasporangia (ovules)

Q 112: Megasporangium mainly consists of a body called ………………. in which a cell is differentiated to the megaspore mother cell.

✅ Nucellus

Q 113: Megaspore mother cell undergoes meiosis to form ………………. megaspores.

✅ Four

Q 114: One of the megaspores enclosed within the Megasporangium (nucellus) develops into a multicellular female gametophyte that bears two or more ……………….

✅ Archegonia

Q 115: Name a plant on which male or female cones may be borne on the same tree.

Pinus

Q 116: Name a plant on which the male or female cones may be borne on different trees.

Cycas

Q 117: In which plant group, the male and the female gametophytes do not have an independent free-living existence?

✅ Gymnosperms

Topic 6: ANGIOSPERMS (FLOWERING PLANTS)

Q 118: Name an angiosperm plant which almost microscopic.

Wolffia

Q 119: ………………. are tall trees which can grow over 100 metres.

Eucalyptus

Q 120: Dicotyledons & Monocotyledons are 2 classes of ……………….

✅ Angiosperms

Q 121: ………………. have 2 cotyledons in seeds, reticulate venations in leaves and tetramerous or pentamerous flowers.

✅ Dicotyledons

Q 122: ………………. have only one cotyledon, parallel venation in leaves and trimerous flowers.

✅ Monocotyledons

Q 123: The reproductive structure of angiosperms is

✅ Flower

Q 124: Male sex organ in a flower is called

✅ Stamen

Q 125: Each stamen consists of a filament with an …………… at the tip.

✅ Anther

Q 126: Within the anthers, the pollen mother cell divides by meiosis to produce microspores which matures into

✅ Pollen grains

Q 127: Female sex organ in a flower is called

✅ Pistil

Q 128: …………… consists of a swollen ovary at its base, a long slender style & stigma.

✅ Pistil

Q 129: Ovary contains ……………….

✅ Ovules

Q 130: An ovule has a megaspore mother cell that undergoes meiosis to form 4 haploid ……………….

✅ Megaspores

Q 131: Three of the megaspores degenerate and one divides to form

✅ Embryo sac

Q 132: How many cells are in the egg apparatus of each embryo sac?

✅ Three

Q 133: The egg apparatus consists of one egg cells and two ……………….

✅ Synergids

Q 134: How many antipodal cells are in the embryo sac?

✅ Three

Q 135: The polar nuclei eventually fuse to produce a diploid ……………….

✅ Secondary nucleus

Q 136: Pollen grains dispersed from anthers are carried by wind or other agencies to the stigma of pistil. It is called

✅ Pollination

Q 137: Where does pollen grains germinate on?

✅ Stigma

Q 138: ………………. grows through the tissues of stigma and style to reach the ovule.

✅ Pollen tubes

Q 139: What is the fusion of one male gamete with an egg cell called?

✅ Syngamy

Q 140: ………………. is formed when the other male gamete fuses with the diploid secondary nucleus?

✅ Primary endosperm nucleus (PEN)

Q 141: The event that involves two fusions during fertilization in plants is called

✅ Double fertilisation

Q 142: ………………. is an event unique to angiosperms.

✅ Double fertilisation

Q 143: The zygote develops into an ………………. with one or two cotyledons.

✅ Embryo

Q 144: The PEN develops into ………………. which provides nourishment to the developing embryo.

✅ Endosperm

Q 145: The ovules develop into ……………….

✅ Seeds

Q 146: The ovaries develop into ……………….

✅ Fruit

Q 147: The seeds are enclosed by

✅ Fruits

Topic 7: PLANT LIFE CYCLES AND ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS

Q 148: In plants, haploid plant body is called

✅ Gametophyte

Q 149: Which generation is represented only by the zygote in the haplontic life cycle?

✅ Sporophytic

Q 150: What phase is dominant and photosynthetic in the haplontic life cycle?

✅ Gametophyte

Q 151: Give an example of an organism with a haplontic life cycle.

Volvox / Spirogyra / Chlamydomonas

Q 152: In the diplontic life cycle, which phase is dominant and photosynthetic?

✅ Sporophyte

Q 153: How is the gametophytic phase represented in the diplontic life cycle?

✅ Haploid

Q 154: Give an example of an organism with a diplontic life cycle.

Fucus / Gymnosperms / angiosperms

Q 155: Which life cycle has both gametophyte and sporophyte as multicellular and often free-living?

✅ Haplo-diplontic

Q 156: Give an example of an organism with a haplo-diplontic life cycle.

✅ Bryophytes / Pteridophytes

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