Human Reproduction | Class 12 | One-Word Answer Type Questions | Topic - wise

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Q 1: Name the male primary sex organ.

✅ Testes

Q 2: The hormone produced by testis is called ………

✅ Testosterone (androgen)

Q 3: Testes are situated outside the abdominal cavity within a pouch called ……….

✅ Scrotum

Q 4: Each testis has about ……… testicular lobules.

✅ 250

Q 5: The functional unit of testis is called

✅ Seminiferous tubule

Q 6: The cells present inside the seminiferous tubules and give nutrition to the germ cells are called

✅ Sertoli cells

Q 7: The cells present at the interstitial spaces of seminiferous tubules and produce of androgen are called

✅ Leydig cells (Interstitial cells)

Q 8: Male accessory glands include rete testis, vasa efferentia, epididymis and

✅ Vas deferens

Q 9: The region of accessory glands where sperms are temporarily stored is called

✅ Epididymis

Q 10: The irregular cavities that conduct sperms from seminiferous tubules are called

✅ Rete testis

Q 11: Male Accessory glands include a prostate gland, a pair of seminal vesicles and a pair of ...........

✅ Cowper’s glands (bulbo-urethral glands)

Q 12: Collective secretion of male Accessory glands which is rich in fructose, calcium and enzymes is called

✅ Seminal plasma

Q 13: Seminal plasma and sperms together constitute

✅ Semen

Q 14: Secretions of …………. lubricate the penis.

✅ Cowper’s glands

Q 15: Name the male external genitalia that facilitates insemination.

✅ Penis

Q 16: The enlarged end of the penis is called

✅ Glans penis

Q 17: Glans penis is covered by loose fold of skin called

✅ Foreskin


Q 18: Female reproductive system is located in

✅ Pelvic region

Q 19: Female primary sex organ which produces ova (female gamete) is called

✅ Ovaries

Q 20: The steroid hormones secreted by ovary are estrogen and

✅ Progesterone

Q 21: Each ovary is covered by a thin epithelium which encloses the …………

✅ Ovarian stroma

Q 22: Ovarian cortex contains groups of cells called

✅ Ovarian follicles

Q 23: Each ovarian follicle carries a centrally placed

✅ Ovum

Q 24: Female accessory ducts include two oviducts, a uterus and

✅ Vagina

Q 25: Infundibulum, ampulla and isthmus are the regions of

✅ Oviducts (Fallopian tubes)

Q 26: In fallopian tube, there is a funnel-shaped opening called Infundibulum with many finger-like …………….

✅ Fimbriae

Q 27: The inverted pear-shaped part of female reproductive system supported by ligaments is called

✅ Uterus (womb)

Q 28: Cervical canal and vagina forms

✅ Birth canal

Q 29: The uterine wall has 3 layers such as outer perimetrium, middle myometrium and inner ………..

✅ Endometrium

Q 30: The layer of uterus made up smooth muscle is called

✅ Myometrium

Q 31: Which layer of uterus is glandular and vascular?

✅ Endometrium

Q 32: ………..... opens to exterior between urethra & anus.

✅ Vagina

Q 33: In female external genitalia (Vulva), there is a cushion of fatty tissue covered by pubic hair. It is called

✅ Mons pubis

Q 34: Large, fleshy, fatty and hairy outer folds that surrounds vaginal opening is called

✅ Labia majora

Q 35: Small, thin and hairless inner folds of vagina is called

✅ Labia minora

Q 36: Name the membrane which partially covers the vaginal opening.

✅ Hymen

Q 37: Which part is often torn during the first coitus, or sudden fall or jolt, insertion of vaginal tampon; active participation in sports etc.?

✅ Hymen

Q 38: A highly sensitive organ in female lying just in front of the urethral opening is ……….

✅ Clitoris

Q 39: Glandular tissue of each mammary glands (breast) has 15-20 …………..

✅ Mammary lobes

Q 40: Name the clusters of cells in mammary glands that secrete milk.

✅ Mammary alveoli

Q 41: The mammary alveoli open into

✅ Mammary tubules.

Q 42: The mammary tubules of each lobe join to form a

✅ Mammary duct.

Q 43: Several mammary ducts join to form a wider ………….

✅ Mammary ampulla.

Q 44: Mammary ampulla is connected to …………… through which milk is sucked out.

✅ Lactiferous duct


Q 45: The formation of gametes in the gonads is called

✅ Gametogenesis

Q 46: The formation of sperms (spermatozoa) from Sperm mother cells (Spermatogonia) in the seminiferous tubules of testis is called

✅ Spermatogenesis

Q 47: During spermatogenesis, the spermatogonia multiply by mitotic division to give

✅ Primary spermatocytes

Q 48: A primary spermatocyte divides meiotically into two equal, haploid cells called

✅ Secondary spermatocytes

Q 49: The secondary spermatocytes undergo second meiotic division to produce four equal, haploid ………

✅ Spermatids

Q 50: The spermatids are transformed into spermatozoa (sperms). It is called

✅ Spermiogenesis

Q 51: After spermiogenesis, sperm heads are embedded in Sertoli cells to get nourishment. Then the matured sperms are released from the seminiferous tubules. It is called

✅ Spermiation

Q 52: Number of sperms produced from one primary spermatocyte is

✅ 4

Q 53: GnRH from Hypothalamus stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete 2 gonadotropins called Luteinizing hormone (LH) and

✅ Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

Q 54: LH acts on the …………. and stimulates secretion of androgens.

✅ Leydig cells

Q 55: FSH acts on the …………. and stimulates secretion of some factors for spermiogenesis.

✅ Sertoli cells

Q 56: The oval shaped Head of a sperm is formed of nucleus and …………..

✅ Acrosome

Q 57: Acrosome is formed from

✅ Golgi complex

Q 58: In a sperm, ………….. is composed of axial filament surrounded by mitochondria & cytoplasm.

✅ Middle piece

Q 59: ……………. produce energy for the sperm motility.

✅ Mitochondria

Q 60: Man ejaculates ………. sperms during a coitus.

✅ 200-300 million

Q 61: For normal fertility, at least ……… sperms must have normal shape and size.

✅ 60%

Q 62: The process of formation and maturation of ovum is called

✅ Oogenesis

Q 63: Oogenesis takes place in ……………

✅ Ovarian follicles

Q 64: The initial steps of oogenesis start at ………..

✅ Embryonic stage

Q 65: Oogonia multiply to form

✅ Primary oocytes

Q 66: Primary oocytes enter …………….. of the meiosis and get temporarily arrested at that stage.

✅ Prophase-I

Q 67: Each primary oocyte gets surrounded by a layer of granulosa cells to form

✅ Primary follicle

Q 68: At puberty, only ………….. primary follicles are left in each ovary.

✅ 60,000 to 80,000

Q 69: Primary follicles get surrounded by more layers of granulosa cells and a new theca to form

✅ Secondary follicles

Q 70: The secondary follicles transform into a tertiary follicle. It has a fluid filled cavity called

✅ Antrum

Q 71: The theca layer secondary follicle forms an inner theca interna and an outer ………….

✅ Theca externa

Q 72: The primary oocyte in tertiary follicle grows and undergoes first unequal meiotic division to form a large haploid secondary oocyte and a small ………………

✅ Polar body

Q 73: Meiotic division of the primary oocyte occurs prior to

✅ Ovulation

Q 74: The tertiary follicle changes into the mature follicle called

✅ Graafian follicle

Q 75: The final step of oogenesis in which secondary oocyte undergoes meiosis II to form mature ovum (ootid) and second polar body occurs after

✅ Fertilization

Q 76: Graafian follicle ruptures to release the secondary oocyte (ovum) from the ovary. This is called

✅ Ovulation

Q 77: The membrane which is outer to the plasma membrane of ovum is called

✅ Zona pellucida

Q 78: Outer layer of ovum formed of follicle cells is called …………

✅ Corona radiata


Q 79: The cyclic events in female reproductive system starting from one menstruation till the next during the reproductive period is called

✅ Menstrual cycle

Q 80: Duration of menstrual cycle is

✅ 28 or 29 days

Q 81: First phase of menstrual cycle occurring from 1-5th day is called

✅ Menstrual phase

Q 82: Menstruation occurs due to the breakdown of

✅ Endometrial lining

Q 83: The first menstruation occurring during puberty is called

✅ Menarche

Q 84: Duration of follicular (proliferative) phase is

✅ 5-13th day

Q 85: Follicular phase is completed within …….. days.

✅ 8-12

Q 86: In which phase, the action of gonadotropins (FSH and LH) from pituitary occurs?

✅ Follicular phase

Q 87: The hormone that stimulates development of primary follicles to Graafian follicles is called

✅ Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Q 88: FSH stimulates secretion of oestrogens by ………….

✅ Graafian follicles

Q 89: Which hormone stimulate proliferation of ruptured uterine endometrium and mucus lining of oviduct & vagina?

✅ Oestrogens

Q 90: In menstrual cycle, ovulatory phase occurs during ...........

✅ 14th day

Q 91: Rapid secretion of LH (LH surge) induces rupture of ………… and thereby ovulation on 14th day.

✅ Graafian follicle

Q 92: The longest phase of menstrual cycle is

✅ Secretory (Luteal) phase

Q 93: After ovulation, Graafian follicle is transformed to a yellow endocrine mass called

✅ Corpus luteum

Q 94: The hormone secreted by corpus luteum is …………..

✅ Progesterone

Q 95: The hormone called …………… makes the endometrium maximum vascular, thick and soft.

✅ Progesterone

Q 96: Progesterone inhibits the ………….. secretion to prevent development of a second ovarian follicle.


Q 97: If fertilization does not occur, …………… degenerates.

✅ Corpus luteum

Q 98: Menstrual cycle ceases around 50 years of age. It is called

✅ Menopause


Q 99: During copulation, semen is released by the penis into the vagina. It is called

✅ Insemination

Q 100: Fusion of a sperm with ovum is called

✅ Fertilization

Q 101: Fertilization occurs in …………… of fallopian tube.

✅ Ampullary region

Q 102: When a sperm contacts with …………… layer of ovum, it induces changes in the membrane that block entry of additional sperms.

✅ Zona pellucida

Q 103: The secretions of …….…… help sperm to enter the egg cytoplasm via zona pellucida & plasma membrane.

✅ Acrosome

Q 104: Fertilization causes second meiotic division of secondary oocyte to form an ovum (ootid) and a

✅ Second polar body

Q 105: The haploid nuclei of the sperm and ovum fuse together to form a diploid

✅ Zygote

Q 106: The sex chromosome pattern in female is XX and that in male is

✅ XY

Q 107: Zygote undergoes mitotic division called ………… as it moves through the isthmus towards the uterus and forms 2, 4, 8, 16 blastomeres.

✅ Cleavage

Q 108: The embryo with 8-16 blastomeres is called

✅ Morula

Q 109: Morula continues to divide and transforms into

✅ Blastocyst

Q 110: In a blastocyst, blastomeres are arranged into outer layer of ………….. and an inner cell mass.

✅ Trophoblast

Q 111: Name the structure that gives nourishment to inner cell mass of blastocyst.

✅ Trophoblast

Q 112: After attachment, uterine cells divide rapidly and cover the blastocyst. Thus, the blastocyst becomes embedded in the endometrium. This is called

✅ Implantation

Q 113: The inner cell mass gets differentiated as the

✅ Embryo


Q 114: 114. Name the finger-like projections that appear on the trophoblast after implantation.

✅ Chorionic villi

Q 115: The chorionic villi & uterine tissue are interdigitated to form …………

✅ Placenta

Q 116: ………….. is a structural and functional unit between embryo (foetus) and maternal body.

✅ Placenta

Q 117: Placenta is connected to the embryo by an …………… for transporting substances to and from the embryo.

✅ Umbilical cord

Q 118: Hormones such as Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), human placental lactogen (hPL), relaxin etc. are secreted by

✅ Placenta

Q 119: Human pregnancy (gestation period) lasts for

✅ 9 months

Q 120: During embryonic development, heart is formed after

✅ One month

Q 121: During embryonic development, Limbs and digits are developed at the end of

✅ Second month

Q 122: When will the most of the major organs are well developed in human embryonic development?

✅ End of 12 weeks (first trimester)

Q 123: First movement of foetus and appearance of hair on the head occurs during

✅ 5th month

Q 124: During embryonic development, body is covered with fine hair; eyelids separate and eye lashes form by the end of

✅ 24 weeks (2nd trimester)


Q 125: Process of delivery of the foetus (childbirth) is called

✅ Parturition

Q 126: The signals originating from the foetus and placenta induce mild uterine contractions. It is called

✅ Foetal ejection reflex

Q 127: Foetal ejection reflex causes the release of ………. from maternal pituitary.

✅ Oxytocin

Q 128: During parturition, which hormone causes stronger uterine muscle contractions?

✅ Oxytocin

Q 129: The continuous uterine muscle contractions lead to expulsion of the baby out of the uterus through the

✅ Birth canal

Q 130: The mammary glands produce milk towards the end of pregnancy. It is called

✅ Lactation

Q 131: The yellowish milk produced during the initial few days of lactation is called

✅ Colostrum

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