Evolution | Class 12 | One-Word Answer type Questions | Topic - wise

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Q 1: Name the theory which states that universe originated about 13.8 billion years ago by a singular huge explosion.

✅ Big Bang Theory

Q 2: The earth was formed about ………. ago.

✅ 4.5 billion years

Q 3: Which of the following was not present in the atmosphere of primitive earth?
Water vapour, Oxygen, CH4, CO2, NH3

✅ Oxygen

Q 4: In primitive earth, the ........ from the sun broke up water into H2 and O2.

✅ UV rays

Q 5: Life appeared on earth almost ……. ago.

✅ Four billion years

Q 6: ………. states that life came out of decaying and rotting matter like straw, mud etc.

✅ Theory of spontaneous generation

Q 7: Theory of spontaneous generation was experimentally disproved by

✅ Louis Pasteur

Q 8: …………….. states that life originates from pre-existing life.

✅ Biogenesis

Q 9: Which theory states that the units of life (spores) were transferred to different planets including earth?

✅ Theory of Panspermia

Q 10: Which theory states that living things were created by some supernatural power?

✅ Theory of special creation

Q 11: Theory of chemical evolution was proposed by

✅ Oparin & Haldane

Q 12: The first form of life was originated from non-living inorganic & organic molecules such as CH4, NH3, H2O, sugars, proteins, nucleic acids etc. This theory is known as

✅ Theory of chemical evolution

Q 13: …………. experimentally proved theory of chemical evolution.

✅ S.L Miller

Q 14: S.L Miller created a condition like that of primitive earth using the gases such as …………

✅ CH4, NH3, H2O, H2

Q 15: S.L Miller, in his experiment, found that some ………. were formed in closed flask.

✅ Amino acids

Q 16: First non-cellular forms of life originated ………. ago.

✅ 3 billion years


Q 17: ………. are remains of hard parts of life-forms found in rocks.

✅ Fossils

Q 18: Cross-section of earth's crust shows ………. where fossils of different ages are found.

✅ Sedimentary rock layers

Q 19: The organs having fundamentally similar structure and origin but different functions are called

✅ Homologous organs

Q 20: Human hand, Whale’s flippers, Bat’s wing & Cheetah’s foot are examples for

✅ Homologous organs

Q 21: …………. is also exhibited in plant parts such as thorns of Bougainvillea and tendrils of Cucurbita.

✅ Homology

Q 22: The origin of homologous organs is due to

✅ Divergent evolution

Q 23: In organisms, same structure develops along different directions due to adaptations to different needs. This is called

✅ Divergent evolution

Q 24: ……….. indicates common ancestry.

✅ Homology

Q 25: The organs having similar function but different structure & origin are called

✅ Analogous organs

Q 26: Wings of butterfly and wings of birds are example for

✅ Analogous organs

Q 27: Which of the following is not an example for Analogy?

(a) Eyes of Octopus and mammals
(b) Bat’s wing and Cheetah’s foot
(c) Flippers of Penguins and Dolphins
(d) Sweet potato and Potato

✅ (b) Bat’s wing and Cheetah’s foot

Q 28: The evolution by which different structures evolve for the same function and become similar is called

✅ Convergent evolution

Q 29: The origin of analogous organs is due to

✅ Convergent evolution

Q 30: ………… rejected the Embryological evidences for evolution proposed by Ernst Haeckel.

✅ Karl Ernst von Baer

Q 31: The process in which organisms with better favourable & heritable variation are survived and reproduced is called

✅ Natural selection

Q 32: In England, after industrialization (1920), there were

(a) More dark-winged moths & less white winged moths.
(b) More white winged moths & less dark-winged moths.
(c) Equal number of dark-winged moths & less white winged moths.
(d) Dark-winged & white winged moths disappeared

✅ (a) More dark-winged moths & less white winged moths

Q 33: Development of resistant varieties in organisms against herbicides, pesticides, antibiotics or drugs etc. are examples for natural selection by ............

✅ Anthropogenic action


Q 34: The evolution of different species from an ancestor in a geographical area starting from a point and radiating to other areas of geography (habitats) is called

✅ Adaptive radiation

Q 35: Darwin’s finches in Galapagos Islands, Australian Marsupial radiation, Placental mammals in Australia etc. are examples for

✅ Adaptive radiation

Q 36: When more than one adaptive radiation is appeared in an isolated geographical area, it results in ...........

✅ Convergent evolution

Q 37: Australian Marsupials such as Flying phalanger and Placental mammals such as Flying squirrel show similarity. This is due to

✅ Convergent evolution


Q 38: Theory of Inheritance of Acquired characters was proposed by

✅ Lamarck

Q 39: According to Lamarck, Acquired characters are developed by ……….. of organs.

✅ Use and disuse

Q 40: Long neck of giraffe is due to continuous elongation to forage leaves on trees and disappearance of limbs in snakes are the examples for evolution proposed by .......

✅ Lamarck

Q 41: Theory of Natural selection was proposed by

✅ Charles Darwin

Q 42: Theory of Natural selection was based on observations during a sea voyage in a sail ship called

✅ H.M.S. Beagle

Q 43: …………. a naturalist worked in Malay Archipelago had come to similar conclusions of Natural selection proposed by Darwin.

✅ Alfred Wallace

Q 44: Work of …………… on populations influenced Darwin.

✅ Thomas Malthus

Q 45: ……………. and natural selection are the two key concepts of Darwinian Theory of Evolution.

✅ Branching descent

Q 46: Heritable variations, Overproduction, Limited natural resources, Struggle for existence and Survival of the fittest are some observations in the theory of

✅ Natural selection

Q 47: Mutation Theory of evolution was proposed by

✅ Hugo de Vries

Q 48: de Vries conducted experiments on the plant ..........

✅ Evening primrose

Q 49: ………… is minor, slow, directional and results in gradual evolution.

✅ Darwinian variation

Q 50: ……… is sudden, random, directionless and speciation occurs by saltation.

✅ Mutational variation

Q 51: ………… is the origin of variation for evolution.

✅ Mutation


Q 52: The allele frequencies in a population are stable and is constant from generation to generation in the absence of disturbing factors. This is called

✅ Hardy-Weinberg principle

Q 53: Sum total of all the allelic frequencies would be ......

✅ 1

Q 54: In a diploid, p & q are the frequencies of alleles A & a respectively. Then total frequency would be ………….

(a) p + q = 1
(b) p2 + q2 = 1
(c) p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
(d) p + 2pq + q = 1

✅ (c) p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1

Q 55: Change of frequency of alleles in a population disturbs .........

✅ Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

Q 56: Gene migration, genetic drift, mutation, genetic recombination and natural selection are the factors affecting ……………

✅ Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

Q 57: The gene flow from one population to another that results change in gene frequencies in both populations is called

✅ Gene migration

Q 58: The gene flow by chance causing change in frequency is called

✅ Genetic drift

Q 59: Due to genetic drift, the frequency change can lead to evolve into a different species and the original drifted population becomes founders. It is called ..........

✅ Founder effect

Q 60: The natural selection where more individuals acquire mean character value and variation is reduced is called

✅ Stabilizing selection

Q 61: The natural selection where individuals of one extreme (value other than mean character value) are more favoured is called

✅ Directional selection

Q 62: The natural selection where individuals of both extremes (peripheral character value at both ends of the distribution curve) are more favoured is called

✅ Disruptive selection


Q 63: First cellular forms of life appeared ……………. million yrs ago.

✅ 2000 mya

Q 64: By the time of ………….., invertebrates were formed and active.

✅ 500 mya

Q 65: Jawless fishes were evolved around ........

✅ 350 mya

Q 66: Sea weeds and few plants existed probably around ........

✅ 320 mya

Q 67: Fish with stout and strong fins could move on land and go back to water about ........

✅ 350 mya

Q 68: The animals called ………. evolved into first amphibians.

✅ Lobefins

Q 69: In 1938, a lobe-fin called ……… fish was caught in South Africa which was thought to be extinct.

✅ Coelacanth

Q 70: Amphibians were evolved to ........

✅ Reptiles

Q 71: ……… were present but they all fell to form coal deposits slowly.

✅ Giant ferns (Pteridophytes)

Q 72: 200 mya, some of the land reptiles went back into water to evolve into fish-like reptiles such as


Q 73: ………… was the largest dinosaur.

Tyrannosaurus rex

Q 74: About …….…. mya, dinosaurs suddenly disappeared.

✅ 65

Q 75: Due to continental drift, ……………. survived because of lack of competition from any other mammals.

✅ Australian marsupials

Q 76: 15 mya, there were Ape-like Dryopithecus and man-like …………….


Q 77: 2 mya, …………. lived in East African grass lands who hunted with stone weapons and ate fruits.


Q 78: Which is not correct about Homo habilis?
First human-like being (hominid).
Buried their dead.
Brain capacity was 650-800 cc.
Did not eat meat.

✅ Buried their dead

Q 79: Homo erectus evolved around 1.5 mya and its brain capacity was .......

✅ 900 cc

Q 80: Which is not correct about Neanderthal man?

(a) Ate only fruits
(b) Evolved around 1 lakh - 40,000 yrs ago
(c) Brain capacity was 1400 cc.
(d) Lived in East & Central Asia.

✅ (a) Ate only fruits

Q 81: The …………. were among the early humans who used hides for protection and clothing, and they also practiced burying their dead.

✅ Neanderthals

Q 82: Which human species was evolved around 75,000 - 10,000 years ago?

Homo sapiens (Modern man)

Q 83: Pre-historic cave art developed about ………… years ago.

✅ 18,000

Q 84: Based on human evolution, agriculture & settlements were started ………. years ago.

✅ 10,000

Q 85: Fill in the blank:
DryopithecusRamapithecus → ……………. → Homo habilisHomo erectusNeanderthalHomo sapiens.


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