Human Reproduction | Class 12 | Sample Questions and Answers

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1 Score Questions

1.    ……………… are the functional unit of testis.

2.    Which of the following is not come under male accessory glands?

(a) Prostate gland              

(b) Seminal vesicles

(c) Vasa efferentia               

(d) Cowper’s glands

3.    Select the correct sequence of sperm conduction:

(a) Seminiferous tubules → rete testis → vasa efferentia → epididymis → vas deferens → ejaculatory duct → urethra → urethral meatus

(b) Seminiferous tubules → rete testis → vas deferens → vasa efferentia → ejaculatory duct → epididymis → urethra → urethral meatus

(c) Rete testis → Seminiferous tubules → vasa efferentia → epididymis → vas deferens → ejaculatory duct → urethral meatus → urethra

(d) Seminiferous tubules → epididymis → ejaculatory duct → rete testis → vasa efferentia → vas deferens → urethra → urethral meatus

4.    The cone-shaped tip of the penis is called ………….

5.    Name the membrane which partially cover vaginal opening.

6.    The following statements compare the process of Oogenesis and spermatogenesis. Which one is not true?

(a)  Production of ovum ceases at certain age, but sperm production continues even in old men.

(b)  Oogenesis begins in the embryonic stages, but spermatogenesis starts at the onset of puberty.

(c)  Meiotic arrest occurs both in Oogenesis and spermatogenesis.

(d)  Polar bodies are formed in Oogenesis.

7.    Note the relationship between first two terms and fill up the fourth place.

        First menstruation: Menarche

        Permanent stopping of menstruation: ........................

8.   Ovulation takes place on …………… of Menstrual cycle.

(a)    5th day                              

(b)  14th day

(c)    7th day                               

(d)  28th day

9.    Fusion of sperm with ovum is called .........................

10.  Fertilisation takes place in

(a)    Ampullary region of fallopian tube

(b)    Endometrial lining of uterus

(c)    Cervical canal of uterus

(d)    Infundibular region of fallopian tube

11.  In uterus, implantation occurs in the layer called ……….

12.  Note the relationship between first two terms and suggest a suitable term for the fourth place.

Progesterone: Corpus luteum                  

HCG: ........................

13.  Structural and functional unit between mother and foetus is called ………….

14.  The process of giving birth to young one is called ……….

15.  Name the yellowish milk produced in the first few days of lactation.

2 Score Questions

16.  Testes of a baby are found to be not descent from abdominal cavity into scrotal sac. What will be its consequence if proper treatment is not given?

17.  “Hymen is not a reliable indicator of virginity or sexual experience.” Justify the statement.

18.  Rearrange the following in correct sequence:

Mammary tubules → mammary alveoli → lactiferous duct → mammary ampulla → mammary duct

19.  Complete the flow chart showing spermatogenesis by filling A and B and answer the question.

  A   →    Primary spermatocyte   →     Secondary spermatocyte   →  B  →   Spermatozoa   

(a)    What is the chromosome number of primary spermatocytes?

(b)    What is the significance of reduction division in spermatogenesis and oogenesis?

20.  Match column A and B.





Luteal phase



8 – 16 blastomeres





21. Match the columns A and B.



Corpus Luteum


Leydig cells




Inner cell mass




22.  Select the odd one and justify your answer.

Oestrogen, Androgen, Relaxin, Progesterone

23.  Diagram of mammalian sperm is given below.

(a)    Label the parts A and B.

(b)    What is the function of A?

24.  Observe the diagram and identify the process.

(a)  Label A, B, C and D.

(b)  Why the gametes produced are haploid even though the gamete mother cells are diploid?

25.  Observe the Graph provided.

(a)    What do A and B stand for?

(b)    Mention the importance of B.

26.  Ovulation does not take place during gestation period. Give reason.

27.  All copulations do not lead to fertilization & pregnancy. Why?

28.  Given below is the diagrammatic representation of Human blastocyst. Observe the diagram and answer the following questions.

(a)    Identify A and B.

(b)    Write the function of A and B.

29.  Mention any 4 functions of placenta.

30.  When the urine sample of a lady is tested, presence of Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) was detected.

(a)    What does the presence of HCG indicate?

(b)    Which is the source of HCG?

31.  Mother’s milk is essential for new born infants.

(a)    Name the fluid secreted by mother from breast during the initial days of lactation.

(b)    Why it is important for new born infants?

3 Score Questions

32.  Schematic representation of Gametogenesis is given.

(a)    Identify A & B.

(b)    What does smaller shaded circle in B represent? Mention its significance.

(c)    Write one difference between A & B.

33.  Observe the diagram and answer the question.

(a)    Identify A and B.

(b)    What is the function of C?

(c)    In which of the marked part reduction division takes place? What is its significance?

34.  Match the following





Formation of ovum

Follicle cells


Sperm head embedded in Sertoli cells

Starts from spermatogonia


Formation of sperms

Differentiation of sperms


Spermatids to sperms

Release of sperms to lumen of seminiferous tubules

35. Observe the diagram provided.

(a)    Label A and B.

(b)    Name the process that induces the rupture of Graafian follicle.

(c)    Write the name and function of the structure forming in ovary after rupture of Graafian follicle.

36. Some stages of embryonic development are given below. Observe the diagram and answer the question.

(a)    What is A and B?

(b)    Name the two types of cells found in Blastocyst.

(c)    Which layer of blastocyst is attached to the endometrium? Name the process.

37.  LH and FSH have important roles in menstrual cycle.

(a)    Name the source of LH and FSH.

(b)    The level of LH is maximum during the middle day of cycle. Mention its effect.

(c)    Mention the functions of LH & FSH in male.


1.    Seminiferous tubules.

2.    Vasa efferentia

3.    (a) Seminiferous tubules → rete testis → vasa efferentia → epididymis → vas deferens → ejaculatory duct → urethra → urethral meatus

4.    Glans penis.

5.    Hymen.

6.    (c) Meiotic arrest occurs both in Oogenesis and spermatogenesis.

7.    Menopause.

8.    (b)  14th day.

9.    Fertilisation.

10.  (a) Ampullary region of fallopian tube

11.  Endometrium.

12.  Placenta.

13.  Placenta.

14.  Parturition.

15.  Colostrum.

16. If testes are not descent into scrotal sac, proper functioning of testes and spermatogenesis do not occur.

17.  Hymen may be broken by a sudden fall or jolt, insertion of a vaginal tampon; active participation in some sports items etc. In some women, hymen persists after coitus. So the hymen is not a reliable indicator of virginity or sexual experience.

18.  Mammary alveoli → Mammary tubules → mammary duct → mammary ampulla → lactiferous duct.

19.  A= Spermatogonia. B= Spermatids

(a)    46

(b) Reductional division (Meiosis) in spermatogenesis and oogenesis is essential to form haploid gametes (n) with 23 chromosomes. Therefore, during fertilisation chromosome number can be maintained to 46.






Luteal phase





8 – 16 blastomeres




Corpus Luteum


Leydig cells




Inner cell mass


22.  Odd one: Androgen. Because it is the male sex hormone. Others are produced in female reproductive system.

23. (a)  A= Acrosome. B= Nucleus.

(b) It contains lytic enzymes that help the sperm to penetrate ovum during fertilisation.

24.  (a) A= Primary oocyte, B= Polar body, C= Secondary oocyte, D= Ootid.

(b) During gametogenesis, meiotic division results in the production of haploid gametes. So, during fertilisation, chromosome number can be maintained to 46.

25. (a) A= Oestrogen, B= Progesterone.

(b) It is the pregnancy hormone that makes the endometrial lining maximum vascular and glandular and maintains pregnancy.

26. During gestation period, progesterone inhibits the FSH secretion to prevent development of another ovarian follicle.

27.  Fertilization happens only if ovum & sperms are transported simultaneously. So all copulations do not lead to fertilization & pregnancy.

28. (a) A= Inner cell mass, B= Trophoblast.

(b) A (inner cell mass) becomes embryo. B (Trophoblast) gives nourishment and protection to developing embryo.

29. (a) Supply O2, nutrients etc. from mother to foetus.

(b) Remove CO2 from foetus.

(c) Remove excretory wastes from foetus.

(d) Acts as an endocrine gland.

30.  (a) She is pregnant.

(b) Placenta.

31.  (a) Colostrum.             

(b) It contains many antibodies that gives immunity to the new born baby. It protects the baby from infections.

32. (a) A= Spermatogenesis. B= Oogenesis.

(b) They are polar bodies. Formation of polar bodies helps to produce only a single ovum in each menstrual cycle. Also, ovum gets more cytoplasm.

(c) During spermatogenesis, each primary spermatocyte can give 4 sperms. But during oogenesis, one primary oocyte produces only one ovum.

33.  (a) A= Sperms. B= Spermatogonia.

(b) C (Sertoli cells) give nourishment and shape to the developing sperms.

(c) D (Primary spermatocyte) undergoes reduction division to give secondary spermatocyte (E). reduction division is necessary to form haploid (n) gamete.






Formation of sperms

Starts from spermatogonia


Spermatids to sperms

Differentiation of sperms


Sperm head embedded in Sertoli cells

Release of sperms to lumen of seminiferous tubules

35. (a) A= Primary follicle. B= Tertiary follicle.

(b) LH surge that results in ovulation.

(c) Corpus luteum. It secretes progesterone.

36. (a) A= 2-celled (blastomeres) stage. B= Morula.

(b) Inner cell mass and Trophoblast cells.

(c) Trophoblast. The process is called implantation.

37. (a) Pituitary.

(b) Maximum level of LH (LH surge) results in ovulation.

(c) LH= Acts on Leydig cells to produce androgens.

FSH= Acts on Sertoli cells to produce factors needed for spermiogenesis.

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