Monday, March 22, 2021

Human Health and Diseases| Class 12 | Sample Questions and Answers

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HUMAN HEALTH AND DISEASES


1 Score Questions

1.     Name the test used for the confirmation of Typhoid.

2.     Note the relationship between first two terms and suggest a suitable term for the fourth place.

Salmonella typhi: Typhoid fever
Plasmodium falciparum: .....................

3.    In Malaria patients, the pathogen releases a toxin called ……………….

4.    Which of the following sets are primary lymphoid organs?

a. Bone marrow and Thymus
b. Spleen and Thymus
c. MALT and Spleen
d. Bone marrow and Spleen

5.    Which of the following cells produce antibodies?

(a) T-lymphocyte 
(b) B-lymphocyte
(c) Neutrophils 
(d) Monocytes

6.    Which of the following is an example for passive immunisation?

a. Immunisation against Polio.
b. Hepatitis B vaccine.
c. DPT vaccine.
d. Immunization against Tetanus.

7.    Antibodies produced against the allergens are

        (a) IgA type 
        (b) IgG type
        (c) IgE type 
        (d) IgM type

8.    ……………. is a respiratory disease due to allergy.

9.    Name an autoimmune disease.

10.    ELISA test is used to diagnose ………….

11.    Cells sloughed from tumours reach other sites via blood where they form a new tumour. This is called …………….

12.    …………… is a bridge linking childhood and adulthood.

13.    Note the relationship between first two terms and suggest a suitable term for the fourth place.

        Erythroxylum coca: Cocaine
        Papaver somniferum: ...................

2 Score Questions

14.    Match the terms given in three columns correctly.

Pathogen

Group

Disease

Haemophilus influenzae

Protozoa

Ringworm

Plasmodium vivax

Fungus

Pneumonia

Wuchereria bancrofti

Bacteria

Malaria

Trichophyton

Helminth

Filariasis

 
15.    Arrange the following diseases in the following column in correct order.

Typhoid, Ring worm, Amoebiasis, AIDS, Malaria, Pneumonia, Common Cold

Bacteria

Virus

Protozoa

Fungus

 

 

 

 


16.    Identify the diseases A & B shown below. Write the pathogens of the diseases.


17.    Complete the table by filling A, B, C and D.

Disease

Pathogen

Symptoms

……A…...

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Alveoli filled with fluid

Common cold

…… B…..

Nasal congestion and discharge

…… C …..

Plasmodium vivax

Chill and fever

Filariasis

Wuchereria

…… D …..

 
18.    Differentiate between Humoral immunity and Cell mediated immunity.

19.    Observe the given figure.


a. Identify this.
b. Label the part X, Y & Z.

20.    “Don’t die of ignorance”. So we should have knowledge about various ways to prevent dangerous diseases. Mention any 4 such preventive measures for AIDS.

21.    Most often HIV Infection occur due to conscious behaviour patterns. Do you agree with this statement? Substantiate your answer.

22.    Briefly describe the characteristic of cancer cells.

23.    Morphine is an abused drug. Discriminate the term ‘use’ and ‘abuse’ of the drugs based on this example.

24.    Complete the table:

Drug category

Plant source

Example

A

Papaver somniferum

B

Cannabinoids

C

Marijuana

Coca alkaloid

D

Cocaine

 
25.    Mention any four causes of drug/alcohol use in Adolescence.

26.    “If proper care and attention is not given by adults, adolescent may become addicted to drug or alcohol”. What is your opinion about this statement? substantiate your answer.

27.    Prepare a pamphlet for adolescent children to make them aware of alcohol and drug abuse.

3 Score Questions 

28.    Complete the table given below:

Barriers

Action

Example

Physical barriers

Prevent entry of microbes

A

B

Prevent microbial growth

C

Cellular barriers

D

Neutrophils

E

Protects non-infected cells from viral infection

F

 
29.   a. Differentiate active immunity from passive immunity.
        b. Give two examples for passive immunity.

30.    In a class room discussion, a student argues that allergic reactions are more common in metro cities than in villages.

a. Do you agree with this statement? Justify.
b. Name any two common allergens.
c. Suggest two drugs which reduce allergic symptoms.

31.    One of your friends argued that Antiretroviral drugs are effective medicine to treat AIDS.

a. What is your opinion about his statement?
b. Briefly explain the sequence of HIV infection to our immune system by.

32.    Cancer is one of the most dreaded diseases of human beings, and is major cause of death all over the globe.

a. What are the causes of cancer?
b. What are the methods for detection of cancer?
c. What are the types of treatment of cancer?

33.    “Blood of a man is tested positive for cannabinoid”

a. What are cannabinoids?
b. From where there are extracted naturally?
c. Which part of the body is affected by these?

34.    Write down any 6 ill effects of alcoholism or drug abuse.

ANSWERS

1.    Widal test.
2.    Malaria.
3.    Haemozoin.
4.    (a) Bone marrow and Thymus
5.    (b) B-lymphocyte
6.    a. (d) Immunization against Tetanus.
7.    (c) IgE type
8.    Asthma.
9.    Rheumatoid arthritis.
10.    HIV infection.
11.    Metastasis.
12.    Adolescence.
13.    Opium.
14.    

Pathogen

Group

Disease

Haemophilus influenzae

Bacteria

Pneumonia

Plasmodium vivax

Protozoa

Malaria

Wuchereria bancrofti

Helminth

Filariasis

Trichophyton

Fungus

Ringworm


15.

Bacteria

Virus

Protozoa

Fungus

Typhoid

Pneumonia

AIDS

Common Cold

Amoebiasis

Malaria

Ring worm


16.

A= Filariasis. Pathogen: Wuchereria bancrofti (Filarial worms).
B= Ringworm. Pathogen: Microsporum, Trichophyton & Epidermophyton.

17.

A= Pneumonia, B= Rhinoviruses, C= Malaria
D= Chronic inflammation and deformity of limbs and genital organs.

18.    Humoral immunity or Antibody mediated immunity (AMI) is the immune response mediated by antibodies.

Cell mediated immunity (CMI) is the immune response mediated by T-lymphocytes. By this, the body can differentiate ‘self’ and ‘non-self’.

19.    (a) An antibody molecule
        (b) X= Antigen binding site.
               Y= Light chain, Z= Heavy chain.

20.    
  • Make blood (from blood banks) safe from HIV.
  • Use disposable needles and syringes.
  • Advocate safe sex and free distribution of condoms.
  • Control drug abuse.
21.    Yes. In most cases, HIV Infection occurs due to the following conscious activities:
  • Sexual contact with infected person.
  • Sharing of infected needles.
22.
  • Cancer cells are proliferating cells that grow rapidly, invade and damage the surrounding normal tissues.
  • They have no contact inhibition.
  • They starve normal cells by competing for nutrients.
  • They move via blood and reach other sites forming a new tumour. This is called metastasis.
23.    Morphine can be ‘used’ as a sedative & painkiller and in surgery. But it is ‘abused’ for intoxication of the body that lead to drug addiction.

24.    A= Opioids, B= Opium, Heroin etc.
        C= Cannabis sativa, D= Erythroxylum coca.

25.
  • Curiosity and Experimentation.
  • Need for adventure and excitement.
  • To escape facing problems.
  • Television, movies, newspapers, internet etc.
  • Unstable or unsupportive family structures.
26.    This statement is true. If adults give proper care and attention, they can identify warning signs of drug /alcohol abuse in adolescent people and save their lives.

    Some are given below:
  • Drop in academic performance.
  • Lack of interest in personal hygiene.
  • Withdrawal and isolation.
  • Depression, fatigue etc.
27.    Addict to Life, not to Alcohol and Drugs:

Alcohol and drugs may thrill you but they are slow poisons affecting you physically, mentally and socially.
  • Reckless behaviour, vandalism and violence.
  • Coma and death due to respiratory failure, heart failure or cerebral haemorrhage.
  • Damage of nervous system and liver cirrhosis.
  • Mental and social distress to family and friends.
28.
A= Skin or mucus.
B= Physiological barriers.
C= Gastric HCl, saliva, tear etc.
D= Phagocytosis.
E= Cytokine barriers.
F= Interferons.

29.    a. Active immunity is the immunity in which antibodies are produced in host body when the host is exposed to antigens.
    In Passive immunity, readymade antibodies are directly given to the body.

b. Antibodies (IgA) in colostrum → infants.
    Anti-tetanus serum (ATS).
30.    a. Yes. Modern-day life style and protected environment provided early in life result in low immunity and more sensitivity to allergens.
b. Mites in dust, pollens, animal dander, fur etc.
c. Anti-histamine, adrenaline and steroids.

31.    a. Anti-retroviral drugs are partially effective. They can only prolong the life of the patient.

b. HIV enters body → To macrophages → RNA genome replicates in presence of Reverse transcriptase to form viral DNA → Viral DNA incorporates into host DNA → Infected cells produce virus particles → HIV enters into helper T-cells → Replicates & produce progeny viruses → Attack other TH cells → TH cells decrease → Weaken immunity.

32.    a. Physical agents: E.g. radiations.
Chemical agents: Tobacco smoke, vinyl chloride etc.
Biological agents: E.g. oncogenic viruses, c-onc gene.
b. Biopsy, imaging techniques, Molecular biology techniques etc.
c. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, surgery etc.

33.

a. They are the drugs that interact with cannabinoid receptors in the brain.
b. Cannabis sativa (Hemp plant).
c. Cardiovascular system.

34.
  • Reckless behaviour, vandalism and violence.
  • Coma and death due to respiratory failure, heart failure or cerebral haemorrhage.
  • Damage of nervous system and liver cirrhosis.
  • Mental and social distress to family and friends.
  • Social problems like stealing and spread of infectious diseases.
  • Loss of sexual drive and necrospermia.

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