Evolution | Class 12 | Sample Questions and Answers

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1 Score Questions

1.   Which theory states that the units of life (spores) were transferred to different planets including earth?

2.   Which of the following sets of gases were used in Miller’s experiment?

a.   CH4, NO2, H2O, CO2            

b.  NH3, CH3. H2O, H2

c.   H2, CH4, NH3, H2O             

d.  H2O, N, CH4, H2

3.   Note the relationship between the first pair and complete second pair.

        Heart of vertebrates: Homologous organ

        Flippers of penguin and Dolphin: .....................

4.   …………… is the evolution of different species from an ancestor in a geographical area starting from a point.

5.   Theory of Inheritance of acquired characters is proposed by ………………

6.   Nam the two key concepts of Darwinian Theory of Evolution.

7.   The gene flow by chance causing change in frequency is called …………….

2 Score Questions

8.   Theory of chemical evolution is a version of theory of abiogenesis. Analyse the statement.

9.   Observe the concept diagram given below.

a.   Identify the type of evolution in A and B.

b.   Write one example each for homologous and analogous organs.

10. The given pictures show the beaks of Darwin’s finches seen in Galapagos island during Darwin’s journey.

a.   What phenomenon in evolution is represented in the picture?

b.   Explain the phenomenon with the help of an additional example.

11. Match the following:

a.    Natural selection

1. Convergent evolution

b.   Inheritance of acquired characters

2. Dark winged and white winged moths

c.    Analogous structures

3. Charles Darwin

d.   Industrial melanism

4. Long neck of Giraffe

12. Hugo de Vries proposed Mutation Theory of evolution.

a.     In which plant de Vries conducted his experiments?

b.     Mention any 3 differences between mutation and Darwinian variation.

13. Diagrammatic representation of the operation of the natural selection in a population is given.

Redraw the diagram when nature select large sized and small sized individuals.

14. Arrange the following in a hierarchical manner in ascending order based on their period of evolution.

Homo erectus, Rama pithecus, Australopithecus, Dryopithecus, Homo sapiens, Neanderthal man, Homo habilis

15. Statements below show features of some human fossils. Read carefully and identify the fossil.

a.   Human like being with brain capacity 650-800cc.

b.   Lived in east and central Asia with brain capacity 1400 cc.

3 Score Questions

16. Categorize the following examples into Homologous organ and analogous organ.

·  Fore limb of whale and bat

·  Thorns of Bougainvillea & tendrils of Cucurbita.

·  Wings of butterfly and bat.

·  Heart of man and cheetah.

·  Eye of octopus and mammals.

·  Sweet potato and potato.

17. Observe the diagrammatic representation given below.

a.  Label A and mention the phenomenon.

b.  How can it consider as an evidence of evolution?

c.  Write any other example for this phenomenon. Explain.

18.  A collection of peppered moths made in England during different period is given below.

Types of moths





White winged moth




Dark winged moth




    a.   What is your observation?

    b.   Name the evolutionary process behind this process.

    c.   Write the reason for decreased number of white winged moth in 1920.

19.  Read the principle and answer the question:

“Allele frequencies in a population are stable and are constant from generation to generation called genetic equilibrium.”

a.  Name the principle mentioned here.

b.  Mention any three factors affecting equilibrium.

c.  What is the significance of disturbance occur in genetic equilibrium?

20.  Match the following:



Genetic drift

Brain capacity 900 cc

Disruptive selection

Founder effect


Evolved to first amphibians

Homo erectus

Individuals of both extremes are more favoured.


Largest Dinosaur

Tyrannosaurus rex

Ape like

21. Given below is the diagrammatic representation of operation of natural selection on different traits.

a.  Identify the type of natural selection A, B & C.

b.  Briefly explain each of them.


1.   Theory of Panspermia.

2.   (d) H2, CH4, NH3, H2O

3.   Analogous organs.

4.   Adaptive radiation.

5.   Lamarck.

6.   Branching descent and natural selection.

7.   Genetic drift.

8.   This statement is true to some extent. Theory of abiogenesis states that life came out of some non-living matters. Theory of chemical evolution states that the first form of life was originated from inorganic & organic molecules. Thus both theories say about the origin of life from non-living things.

9.   (a) A= Divergent evolution. B= Convergent evolution.

(b) Homologous organs: E.g. Human hand, Whale’s flippers, Bat’s wing & Cheetah’s foot.

Analogous organs: E.g. Wings of insects and wings of birds.

10. (a) Adaptive radiation.

(b) Adaptive radiation is the evolution of different species from an ancestor in a geographical area starting from a point. E.g. Marsupial radiation in Australia.


a.   Natural selection

3. Charles Darwin

b.   Inheritance of acquired characters

4. Long neck of Giraffe

c.   Analogous structures

1. Convergent evolution

d.  Industrial melanism

2. Dark winged and white winged moths


12. (a) Evening primrose.

(b) Darwinian variation is minor, slow and directional. It results in gradual evolution.

Mutational variation is sudden, random & directionless.


14. DryopithecusRamapithecus Australopithecines Homo habilis Homo erectus Neanderthal man Homo sapiens

15. (a) Homo habilis.

(b) Neanderthal man.

16. Examples for Homologous organ and analogous organ:

Homologous organs

Analogous organs

Fore limb of whale & bat

Wings of butterfly & bat

Thorns of Bougainvillea & tendrils of Cucurbita

Eye of octopus and mammals

Heart of man and cheetah

Sweet potato and potato

17. (a) A= Marsupial radiation. The phenomenon is Adaptive radiation.

(b) It is an evolution of different species of marsupials from an ancestor in Australia. It is a type of divergent evolution.

(c) Darwin’s finches in Galapagos Islands.

18. (a) It denotes the variations in the number of white winged moths and dark winged moths in different periods.

(b) Natural selection.

(c) After industrialization (1920), the tree trunks became dark due to industrial smoke and soot. No growth of lichens. So white winged moths did not survive because the predators identified them easily. Dark winged moth survived because of suitable dark background.

19. (a) Hardy-Weinberg Principle.

(b) Gene migration, Genetic drift, Natural selection, mutation etc.

(c) It results in evolution.




Genetic drift

Founder effect

Disruptive selection

Individuals of both extremes are more favoured.


Ape like

Homo erectus

Brain capacity 900 cc


Evolved to first amphibians

Tyrannosaurus rex

Largest Dinosaur

21. (a) A= Stabilizing selection. B= Directional selection. C= Disruptive selection.

(b) Stabilizing selection: Here, more individuals acquire    mean character value and variation is reduced.

Directional selection: Individuals of one extreme are more favoured.

Disruptive selection: Individuals of both extremes are more favoured.


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