Reproductive Health | Plus 2 Zoology| Exam Capsule Notes (Web and PDF)


WHO: World Health Organization.

RCH (Reproductive & Child Health Care Programme): To give awareness about reproduction related aspects (population explosion & birth control, pregnancy, post-natal care, sex related social evils etc.). 

MMR: Maternal Mortality Rate. 

IMR: Infant Mortality Rate.


1. Natural/Traditional methods:
  • Periodic abstinence: Avoid coitus during fertile period of the menstrual cycle. 
  • Coitus interruptus: (withdrawal): Withdraw penis from the vagina just before ejaculation. 
  • Lactational amenorrhoea: It is the absence of menstrual cycle & ovulation due to lactation after parturition. Breastfeeding increases lactation. This helps to prevent conception. This is effective up to 6 months following parturition. 
2. Barriers:
  • Condoms
  • Diaphragm
  • Cervical caps
  • Vaults
3. Intra Uterine Devices (IUDs):
  • Non-medicated: E.g. Lippes loop.
  • Copper releasing: E.g. CuT, Cu7, Multiload 375.
  • Hormone releasing: E.g. Progestasert, LNG-20.

4. Oral contraceptives (tablets/ pills): 
  • Progestogens or Progestogen–estrogen combination.
  • Saheli: Developed by CDRI (Central Drug Research Institute). Once a week pill. Least side effect. Non-steroidal.
5. Injectables: 
  • Injections
  • Implants

6. Surgical methods (Sterilization): 
  • Vasectomy: Vas deferens is cut in male.
  • Tubectomy: Fallopian tube is cut in female.

Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) or induced abortion
  • Safe during first trimester.
  • Importance: To avoid unwanted pregnancies (casual intercourse or rapes) and harmful pregnancies.
  • Problems: Performed illegally. Female foeticide. Misuse of amniocentesis.
  • Amniocentesis: Analysis of foetal cells from amniotic fluid. It is used to test genetic disorders, survivability of foetus etc. it is misused for foetal sex determination.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) or STI (Sexually transmitted infections)

  • Also called RTI/ VD (Reproductive Tract Infection/ Venereal Diseases).
  • E.g. Gonorrhoea, syphilis, genital herpes, chlamydiasis, genital warts, trichomoniasis, hepatitis-B & HIV leading to AIDS. 
  • Early symptoms: Itching, fluid discharge, slight pain, swellings, etc. in the genital region.
  • If not consult a doctor, it leads to PID (Pelvic Inflammatory Disease), infertility, ectopic pregnancies, abortions, still births, genital cancer etc. 
  • Prevention: Avoid sex with unknown/multiple partners, Use condoms, Consult doctor at earlier.
Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART)

To correct infertility problems. They include

1. IVF (In Vitro Fertilization): 
    Test tube baby programme. Fertilization of ovum with sperm in laboratory.
    This is followed by Embryo transfer (ET). 2 types: 
  • ZIFT (Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer): Transfer of zygote or early embryo (up to 8 blastomeres) into fallopian tube.
  • IUT (Intra Uterine Transfer): Transfer of embryo with more than 8 blastomeres into the uterus.
2. GIFT (Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer): 
  • Transfer of an ovum into the fallopian tube of another female who cannot produce ovum, but can provide suitable environment for fertilization and development.
3. ICSI (Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection): 
  • A single sperm is injected directly into an egg. 
  • After fertilization, the embryo is implanted into the woman’s uterus.
4. AI (Artificial Insemination): 
  • Semen is artificially introduced into the vagina or the uterus of the female.
  • Useful for the male partner having inability to inseminate female or low sperm counts etc.
  • IUI (Intra Uterine Insemination): Artificial insemination into the uterus.
Problems of ART: Need professionals and expensive instrumentation. Emotional, religious and social problems.

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