THE LIVING WORLD:
CHAPTER AT A GLANCE
PROPERTIES OF LIVING ORGANISMS
- Growth: Increase in number & mass of cells by cell division.
- Reproduction: Production of progeny having features similar to those of parents.
- Metabolism: All biochemical reactions taking place inside a living system.
- Cellular organization: Organisms are made up of one or more cells.
- Consciousness: Ability of organisms to sense their environment and respond to environmental stimuli.
DIVERSITY IN THE LIVING WORLDTaxonomy: Study of identification, classification & nomenclature of organisms.
Basic processes of taxonomy:
- Nomenclature (naming).
- Botanical names are based on International Code for Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN).
- Zoological names are based on International Code for Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN).
- Scientific names are in Latin or Latinised and written in italics. When handwritten, they are underlined.
- The first word is genus name (Generic name) and second word is the species name (specific epithet).
- The Genus name starts with capital letter and the species name starts with small letter. E.g. Homo sapiens- Homo is the genus name and sapiens is the species name.
- Name of the author (in abbreviated form) appears at the end of the biological name. E.g., Mangifera indica Linn. (Linn. = Linnaeus).
- Each category or taxon represents a unit of classification.
- Kingdom: Highest category.
- Species: Lowest category.
Organisms with their taxonomic categories
- Herbarium: Store house of dried plants on sheets.
- Botanical gardens: Collection of living plants.
- Museum: Collection of dead plants and animals.
- Zoological Parks (Zoos): Live wild animals.
- Key: Analytical method of identification of organisms.
- Flora: Account of plant species of a given area.
- Manuals: Information for identification of names of species found in an area.
- Monographs: Information on any one taxon.