Friday, November 20, 2020

The Living World | Plus 1 Exam Capsule Notes

THE LIVING WORLD: 
CHAPTER AT A GLANCE

PROPERTIES OF LIVING ORGANISMS
  1. Growth: Increase in number & mass of cells by cell division.
  2. Reproduction: Production of progeny having features similar to those of parents.
  3. Metabolism: All biochemical reactions taking place inside a living system.
  4. Cellular organization: Organisms are made up of one or more cells.
  5. Consciousness: Ability of organisms to sense their environment and respond to environmental stimuli.

DIVERSITY IN THE LIVING WORLD 

Taxonomy: Study of identification, classification & nomenclature of organisms.

Basic processes of taxonomy: 
  • Characterization
  • Identification
  • Classification 
  • Nomenclature (naming).
Binomial nomenclature:
  • Botanical names are based on International Code for Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN).
  • Zoological names are based on International Code for Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN).
Universal rules of Binomial nomenclature: 
  • Scientific names are in Latin or Latinised and written in italics. When handwritten, they are underlined.
  • The first word is genus name (Generic name) and second word is the species name (specific epithet).
  • The Genus name starts with capital letter and the species name starts with small letter. E.g. Homo sapiens- Homo is the genus name and sapiens is the species name.
  • Name of the author (in abbreviated form) appears at the end of the biological name. E.g., Mangifera indica Linn. (Linn. = Linnaeus).

TAXONOMIC CATEGORIES 


  • Each category or taxon represents a unit of classification. 
  • Kingdom: Highest category. 
  • Species: Lowest category. 

Organisms with their taxonomic categories 



TAXONOMICAL AIDS

  1. Herbarium: Store house of dried plants on sheets.
  2. Botanical gardens: Collection of living plants.
  3. Museum: Collection of dead plants and animals.
  4. Zoological Parks (Zoos): Live wild animals.
  5. Key: Analytical method of identification of organisms.
  6. Flora: Account of plant species of a given area.
  7. Manuals: Information for identification of names of species found in an area. 
  8. Monographs: Information on any one taxon.

No comments:

Post a Comment