PART A: BOTANY
a. Tolerant to abiotic stresses.b. Pest resistant
(c) Biological control
(a) An orchid growing on a tree trunk
(b) Gauss's Exclusion Principle
6. (a) Zoospores
7. (a) PCR is useful for early detection of diseases, gene mutation, cancer etc.
(b) It is based on the antigen – antibody interaction.
8. (a) Pyramid of biomass.
(b) Energy flows from a trophic level to next higher trophic level, only 10% of energy of a trophic level will be transferred to next higher trophic level.
9. Increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration causing Global warming, Loss of habitat and biodiversity, Desertification.
10. (a) A= Mortality (D) B= Emigration (E)
(b) Nt + 1 = Nt + [(B + I) – (D + E)].
11. Differences between dicot embryo and monocot embryo:
12. (a) Biomagnification
(b) In birds, it disturbs calcium metabolism resulting in thinning of egg shells.
13. (a) Detritivores are the organisms that breaks detritus to smaller particles.
(b) Earthworm, termites etc.
14. (a) Syngamy and Triple fusion.
(b) Primary Endosperm Nucleus (PEN).
15. 1. Isolation of the Genetic Material (DNA).
2. Cutting of DNA by restriction enzymes.
3. Amplification of Gene of Interest using PCR.
4. Insertion of Recombinant DNA into Host Cell.
5. Obtaining the Foreign Gene Product.
6. Downstream Processing.
16. (a) Hind II.
(b) First capital letter: Genus name.
Second two letters: Species name.
Fourth letter: Strain of bacterium from which the enzyme is isolated.
Roman number: Order of isolation of enzyme.
17. (a) A= Epidermis, B= Endothecium, C= Middle layers, D= Tapetum.
18. (a) Mule.
(b) Outcrossing: Cross between individuals of same breed but beyond 4 to 6 generations.
Crossbreeding: Cross between individuals of two different breeds.