1. (d) Mesosome
2. Rhizopus/ Mucor
3. Cleavage furrow
4. Osmosis/Diffusion of water across the membrane.
Functions: Active transport and passive transport.
5. Chlorophyll b, Xanthophyll and Carotene.
Significance of accessory pigments:
> Absorption and transfer of light to the reaction centre.
> Protect the chlorophyll a from photooxidation.
6. c. Collenchyma
Function: - Mechanical support, Photosynthesis etc.
7. Aerobic respiration: Occurs in presence of oxygen. High energy output (38 or 36 ATP).
Anaerobic respiration: Occurs in the absence of oxygen. Low energy output (2 ATP).
Peculiarities: Diploid (2n) structure. Produces haploid (n) spores.
9. Second stage: Metaphase.
Third stage: Anaphase.
Features of second stage (Metaphase): All chromosomes at equator. Chromosomes at maximum condensation.
10. a. Grana
Function of grana: Light reaction.
Function of stroma: Dark reaction.
11. Kranz anatomy.
> Two types of chloroplasts.
> Bundle sheath chloroplast is large.
> Closely packed bundle sheath cells.
12. ATP synthase (Complex V)
Function: ATP synthesis (oxidative phosphorylation).
13. Copper, Boron, Manganese, Chlorine
iv. Formation of glucose
i. Formation of oxygen
ii. Formation of phosphoglycolate
ii. Formation of 3-PGA
15. Solanaceae Gynoecium: Bicarpellary obligately placed, syncarpous; ovary superior, bilocular.
Fabaceae Gynoecium: Ovary superior, mono carpellary, unilocular with many ovules.
16. (a) Apical dominance – Auxin.
Bolting – Gibberellin.
Apical dominance is the promotion of apical bud by suppressing lateral buds.
Bolting is the rapid stem elongation just prior to flowering in rosette plants.
(b) Abscisic acid (ABA).
17. (a) Pneumatophores: Function is respiration.
(b) Thorn: Function is protection.
(c) Tendrils: Function is mechanical support.
18. Root hair: Absorption of water and minerals.
Bulliform cells: Rolling and unrolling of leaves to reduce surface area.