Sunday, July 26, 2020

The Living World - Notes (Class 11) - Part 3 Taxonomic Aids


1. THE LIVING WORLD
TAXONOMIC AIDS

a. Herbarium

-  It is a store house (repository) of plant specimens that are dried, pressed and preserved on sheets and are arranged according to universally accepted classification.
-  Herbarium sheets are labelled with information about date and place of collection, English, local and botanical names, family, collector’s name etc.

b. Botanical gardens

-    These are specialized gardens having collections of living plants for reference and identification.
-    Each plant is labelled with its botanical name and family.
-    Famous botanical gardens:
o Royal Botanical Garden at Kew (England).
o Indian Botanical Garden, Howrah (India).
o At National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow (India).

c. Biological Museum

-    It is a collection of preserved plants and animals for study and reference.
-    A museum contains
§ Specimens preserved in preservative solutions in containers or jars.
§ Preserved dry specimens of plants and animals.
§ Insects preserved in insect boxes after collecting, killing and pinning.
§ Stuffed larger animals like birds and mammals.
§ Collections of animal skeletons.

d. Zoological Parks (Zoos)

-    These are the places where live wild animals are kept in protected environments under human care.
-    It helps to learn about their food habits and behaviour.

e. Key

-    It is an analytical method of identification of organisms based on similarities and dissimilarities.
-    It is based on the contrasting characters generally in a pair called couplet.
-    Each couplet has two opposite options. Of these, only relevant option is accepted and other is rejected.  
-    Each statement in the key is called a lead.

Flora, manuals, monographs & catalogues

-    Flora: Actual account of habitat and distribution of plant species of a given area.
-    Manuals: The record that contains information for identification of names of species found in an area.
-    Monographs: The records that contain information on any one taxon.
-    Catalogue: Alphabetical list of species.

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