1. During a study tour teacher showed the primary colonizers on the banks of the river ‘Nila’.
a. Identify the succession and justify your answer.
b. List the different stages of the identified succession. (3)
2. While learning trophic levels in class-room, teacher asked you to explain ‘standing crop’ to Raman. Explain. (1)
1. Pond is a self-sustainable unit. Some organisms related to pond ecosystem is listed below:
Tadpole, fish, water, plants, kingfisher
a. Construct a food chain with the listed organisms.
b. Explain trophic level.
c. Point out trophic level of each organism in the constructed food chain.
d. Name interconnection of food chains in nature. (4)
1. Consider pond as an ecosystem showing the number of individuals in the following categories.
Carnivores- 2500, Producers- 15000, Herbivores- 5000
a. Draw the pyramid of numbers in this ecosystem.
b. Comment on the energy flow in the ecosystem. (2)
2. The gradual change in the species composition of a given area leading to the formation of climax community is called ecological succession. In a rocky area,
a. What is the expected type of pioneer species?
b. How this pioneer species leads to the establishment of a stable climax community? (2)
1. Fill up the blanks with appropriate terms in the given pyramid of trophic level: (1)
2. Kalyani wrote man, hen, earthworm, mango-tree in her notebook. Arrange the terms in a food chain sequence. Explain food chain and name the types of food chain. (3)
1. In a marine ecosystem, a population of phytoplankton (150,000) supports a standing crop of fishes (40,000).
a. Draw the pyramid of biomass and
b. The pyramid of numbers in this ecosystem. (2)
2. The gradual and fairly predictable change in the species composition in an area is called ecological succession.
a. Name the pioneer species in the primary succession in water.
b. Give the sequence of events and climax community in the hydrarch succession. (2)
1. Given number of individuals in a grass land ecosystem.
Grasshopper – 1500 Grass – 5,842,000 Wolf – 28 Birds – 215
a. Draw a pyramid of numbers showing various trophic levels.
b. Explain trophic level. (2)
2. Rate of biomass production is called productivity and can be divided into GPP and NPP.
a. Define GPP and NPP. b. How can we relate GPP and NPP? (2)