Comparison between prokaryotic cell and eukaryotic cell

Prokaryotic cell
Eukaryotic cell
1.        Lack of organized nucleus. Genetic material is present in the form of nucleiod
Well organized nucleus
2.        Nuclear membrane absent
3.        DNA is not complexed with histones
DNA is complexed with histones to constitute chromatin
4.        DNA in a circular form and not packed into chromosomes
Linear DNA packed into well defined chromosomes
5.        Membrane-bound organelles are absent
Membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, Lysosomes, chloroplasts etc are present
6.        Cellular respiration is carried out by plasma membrane.
Cellular respiration by mitochondria.
7.        Absence of nucleoli and mitotic apparatus
Presence of nucleoli and mitotic apparatus
8.        Cell wall made up of murein
Cell wall present in plant cell is made of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin
9.        The cell membrane may infold to form mesosomes
Cell membrane does not from mesosome
10.      Flagella simple, made up of flagellin and 9+2 organization is absent
Flagella specialized and show 9+2 organization
11.      Cytoplasm does not show streaming movement
Cytoplasm usually show streaming movement
12.      Microtubules are absent
Microtubules present
13.      Ribosomes are of 70 S type
Ribosomes are of 80 S type. 70 S type of ribosomes, however occur in plastids and mitochondria
14.      Different kinds of pili present
15.      Replication of DNA occurs continuously throughout cell cycle
Replication of DNA occurs during S-phase of cell cycle

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