Saturday, December 26, 2020

Microbes in Human Welfare | Plus 2 Zoology| Exam Capsule Notes

MICROBES IN HUMAN WELFARE: 
CHAPTER AT A GLANCE

Microbes

Group

Uses

1.         Acetobacter aceti

Bacterium

Acetic acid

2.         Aspergillus niger

Fungus

Citric acid

3.         Azospirillum

Bacterium

Nitrogen fixation, biofertilizer

4.         Azotobacter

Bacterium

Nitrogen fixation, biofertilizer

5.         Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)

Bacterium

Biocontrol of butterfly caterpillar

6.         Baculoviruses (mainly nucleopolyhedrovirus)

Virus

Biocontrol of insects and other arthropods.

Used in Integrated Pest Management (IPM).

7.         Clostridium butyilicum

Bacterium

Butyric acid

8.         Cyanobacteria (blue green algae)

Bacteria

Nitrogen fixation, biofertilizer

9.         Lactobacillus (LAB)

Bacterium

Lactic acid, milk to curd

10.     Methanobacterium (methanogens)

Bacterium

Biogas (CH4) production i.e., source of energy

11.     Monascus purpureus

Fungus (a yeast)

Statins (blood cholesterol lowering agents)

12.     Mycorrhiza

Fungi (E.g. Glomus) + plant

Biofertilizer

13.     Penicillium notatum

Fungus (mould)

Penicillin (First antibiotic discovered by Alexander Fleming).

14.     Penicillium roqueforti

Fungus

Roquefort cheese

15.     Propionibacterium shermanii

Bacterium

In Swiss cheese formation

16.     Rhizobium

Bacterium

Nitrogen fixation, biofertilizer

17.     Saccharomyces cerevisie (Baker’s yeast or Brewer’s yeast)

Fungus

Production of beverages, bread by fermenting dough, ethanol etc.

18.     Streptococcus

Bacterium

Streptokinase (a clot buster)

19.     Trichoderma polysporum

Fungus

Cyclosporine A (An immunosuppressive agent)

20.     Trichoderma sp

Fungus

Biocontrol

  • Lipases: Used in detergent to remove oily stains from the laundry.
  • Pectinases & Proteases: To clarify bottled juices.
Steps of Sewage treatment: 


  • STP: Sewage Treatment Plant.
  • BOD: Biochemical Oxygen Demand (amount of O2 needed to oxidize all organic compounds in 1 litre of water.
Biogas Plant:


Technology of biogas production in India was developed by:
  • IARI: Indian Agricultural Research Institute
  • KVIC: Khadi & Village Industries Commission.

Other Chapters 👇


👉 Class 11
👉 Class 12


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