Sunday, May 18, 2014

List of Bacterial diseases in Human: Causative Agent, Transmission, Symptoms, Prevention & Treatment


Sl No.
Disease and Pathogen
Transmission & Incubation period
Symptoms
Prevention & Treatment
1.       
Disease:
Acinetobacter infections

Pathogen: Acinetobacter baumannii
Transmission: 
Direct contact and may be found on skin or in food, water, or soil. It may also be found in hospitals.
Fever. Red, swollen, warm, or painful skin areas or wounds.
An area of orange, bumpy skin with blisters. Cough, chest pain, or trouble breathing.
Burning feeling while you urinate. Sleepiness, headaches, or a stiff neck.
It may lead to Pneumonia, Blood infection, Meningitis,
Urinary tract infection, Skin or wound infection etc.
Treatment:
Antibiotic medicines, Pain medicine, Antipyretics

Prevention:
Wash hands, Keep wounds covered.


2.       
Disease:
Actinomycosis

Pathogen:
Actinomyces israelii, Actinomyces gerencseriae and Propionibacterium propionicus
Transmission:
Person-to-person via contact of the oral flora.

Incubation period:
From several days to several years
Commonly affects jaw. Also affects the brain, lungs or intestines.
The bacterium is normally present in mouth but it may become pathogenic when a tooth is extracted, causing the slow formation of abscesses and ulcers.
Treatment:
Antibiotics for several months to a year. Surgical drainage or removal of the lesion may be needed.
Prevention:
Good oral hygiene and regular dentist visits prevent some forms of actinomycosis.
3.       
Disease:
Anthrax

Pathogen:
Bacillus anthracis
Transmission:
By contact with farm animal hair, hides or excrement.
In man, the disease attacks either the lungs, causing pneumonia (wool sorter’s disease), or the skin, producing severe ulceration (malignant pustule)
Treatment:
Administration of large doses of penicillin or tetracycline
4.        
Disease:
Botulism (and Infant botulism)

Pathogen:
Clostridium botulinum
Transmission:
Through contamination of food (food poisoning)

Incubation period:
Infants: 3-30 days
Children and adults: 12-72 hours
·  Infants: Lethargy, weakness, poor feeding, constipation, poor head control, poor gag and sucking reflex.
·  Children and adults: Double vision, blurred vision, drooping eyelids, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, dry mouth and muscle weakness.
Treatment:
Penicillin
5.       
Disease:
Brucellosis

Pathogen:
Brucella genus
Transmission:
By direct contact or untreated/contaminated milk of animals
Abdominal pain, Back pain,
Chills, Excessive sweating, Fatigue, Fever, Headache, Joint pain, Loss of appetite, Weakness, Weight loss
Treatment: Antibiotics.
Prevention:
Avoid unpasteurized dairy foods.
Cook meat thoroughly.
Wear gloves. Take safety precautions in high-risk workplaces.
Vaccinate domestic animals.
6.       
Disease:
Cat-scratch disease

Pathogen:
Bartonella henselae
Transmission:
Bite or scratch of infected cat.
Contact with cat saliva on broken skin or the white of the eye.

Incubation period:
7 to 14 days or 2 months.
Tender regional lymphadenopathy, slight fever, headache, chills, malaise, abdominal pain, backache, convulsions or sterile suppurative papules at the site of inoculation occur.
Treatment:
·  Blood tests and cultures to rule out other causes of swollen lymph nodes
·  A blood test that is positive for cat scratch disease
·  A microscopic examination of a removed lymph node that shows signs of cat scratch disease
Prevention:
·   Avoid stray or unfamiliar cats.
·   Avoid rough play with any pets to avoid being scratched or bitten.
·   Wash hands after handling with a cat.
7.       
Disease:
Cellulitis

Pathogen:
Group A Streptococcus and Staphylococcus
Transmission:
It may infected after any event that causes a break in the skin, such as:
· Surgery.
· A cut or bite.
· A new tattoo or piercing.
· Skin breakdown, such as eczema, psoriasis, or a fungal infection like athlete's foot.
At first, the infected area will be warm, red, swollen, and tender. If the infection spreads, you may have a fever, chills, and swollen lymph nodes.
Treatment:
Antibiotics
8.       
Disease:
Chancroid

Pathogen:
Haemophilus ducreyi
Transmission:
Sexual contact with an infected person.

Incubation period:
1-2 weeks
Chancroid begins with a small bump that becomes an ulcer within a day of its appearance. The ulcer characteristically:
1. Ranges in size dramatically from 3 to 50 mm (1/8 inch to two inches) across is painful
2. Has sharply defined, undermined borders
3.  Has irregular or ragged borders
4.  Has a base that is covered with a gray or yellowish-gray material
5.  Has a base that bleeds easily if traumatized or scraped painful lymphadenopathy occurs in 30 to 60% of patients.
Treatment:
The CDC recommendation for chancroid is a single oral dose (1 gram) of Azithromycin or a single IM dose of Ceftriaxone or oral Erythromycin for seven days.

Prevention:
Avoid all forms of sexual activity with infected persons.
9.       
Disease:
Chlamydia (Chlamydiasis)

Pathogen:
Chlamydia trachomatis
Transmission:
By vaginal, anal, or oral sex.
It can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby during vaginal childbirth
In women:
Abnormal vaginal discharge that may have an odor.
Bleeding between periods
Painful periods.
Abdominal pain with fever.
Pain when having sex.
Itching or burning in or around the vagina.
Pain when urinating.

In men:
Small amounts of clear or cloudy discharge from the tip of the penis.
Painful urination.
Burning and itching around the opening of the penis.
Pain and swelling around the testicles.
Treatment:
Antibiotics
10.  
Disease:
Cholera

Pathogen:
Vibrio cholerae (Vibrio comma)-Gram –ve rods
Transmission: Through contaminated food and water.
Incubation period: 6 hrs to 3 days
Severe diarrhea, irritation of skin around anus, rice water stool; vomiting and muscular cramps, dehydration of the body.
Anti or Bilivaccine.
11.     
Disease:
Clostridium perfringens infection (Food poisoning)

Pathogen:
Clostridium perfringens
Transmission:
Beef, Poultry, Gravies

Incubation period:
6-24 hours
Diarrhea and abdominal cramps (not fever or vomiting)
·  Thoroughly cook foods to a safe internal temperature.
·   Use a food thermometer
·   Keep food hot after cooking
·   Refrigerate perishable foods within two hours (at 40˚F or below)
12.  
Disease:
Diphtheria

Pathogen:
Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Gram +ve non-capsulated)
Transmission:
Attacks children from 1-5 years of age

Incubation period:
2-4 days
Upper respiratory tract illness having sore throat, an adherent layer on the tonsils, nasal cavity, pharynx. Toxins produce high fever, damage the nervous system and heart
Prevention:
By active immunization; DT or DPT (bivalent or trivalent) at the age of 3-12 months; 3 doses at the interval of 4-6 weeks.
13.     
Disease:
Epidemic typhus (Jail fever, Camp fever)

Pathogen:
Rickettsia prowazekii (louse-borne bacteria)
Transmission:
Feeding on a human who carries the bacillus infects the louse. R. prowazekii grows in the louse's gut and is excreted in its feces. The disease is then transmitted to an uninfected human who scratches the louse bite (which itches) and rubs the feces into the wound.

Incubation period:
1-2 weeks.
Severe headache, a sustained high fever, cough, rash, severe muscle pain, chills, falling blood pressure, stupor, sensitivity to light, delirium and death. A rash begins on the chest about five days after the fever appears, and spreads to the trunk and extremities. A symptom common to all forms of typhus is a fever which may reach 39°C (102°F).
Treatment:
Antibiotics.
Intravenous fluids and oxygen may be needed to stabilize the patient.
14.  
Disease:
Gonorrhea

Pathogen:
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Transmission:
Through sexual contact (venereal disease)
Burning and pain during micturition. Leads to sterility
Treatment:
Antibiotics like penicillin G
15.  
Disease:
Leprosy (Hansen's disease)

Pathogen:
Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis (Gram +ve, rod shaped)
Transmission:
By direct contact with infected person.

Incubation period:
1-5 years
Granulomatous disease of the peripheral nerves and mucosa of the upper respiratory tract. Ulcers, nodules, scab deformities of fingers and toes, in particular nerves are being infected.
Treatment:
Lepromin skin test confirms the presence of the disease.
Drugs: Dapsone (DDS; 4, 4’ diaminodiphenyl-sulfone) given for several years.
16.  
Disease:
Leptospirosis (Weil's syndrome, canicola fever, canefield fever, nanukayami fever, 7-day fever, Rat Catcher's Yellows, Fort Bragg fever)

Pathogen:
Leptospira genus
Transmission:
Through rodents etc.
It is often transmitted by animal urine or water containing animal urine.

Incubation period:
4–14 day
High fever, severe headache, chills, muscle aches, and vomiting, and may include jaundice, red eyes, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rash. Initial presentation may resemble pneumonia.
Biphasic disease with meningitis, liver damage and renal failure.
Prevention:
Human vaccines are available in a few countries, including Cuba and China. Animal vaccines only cover a few strains of the bacteria. Dog vaccines are effective for at least one year.
17.  
Disease:
Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis)

Pathogen:
Borrelia burgdorferi and other Borrelia species
Transmission:
By the bite of infected ticks belonging to the genus Ixodes ("hard ticks").
Rash and flu symptoms followed by musculoskeletal, psychiatric, neurologic, arthritic and cardiac manifestations.
Treatment:
Antibiotics
18.  
Disease:
Meningitis (Bacterial)

Pathogen:
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus)

Neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcal disease)

Haemophilus influenzae

Listeria monocytogenes
Transmission:
It usually occurs when bacteria enter the bloodstream and migrate to the brain and spinal cord.
But it can also occur when bacteria directly invade the meninges, as a result of an ear or sinus infection, or a skull fracture, or rarely, after some surgeries.
·      Sudden high fever
·      Severe headache that isn't easily confused with other types of headache
·  Stiff neck
·  Vomiting or nausea with headache
·  Confusion or difficulty concentrating
·   Seizures
·   Sleepiness or difficulty waking up
·   Sensitivity to light
·   Lack of interest in drinking and eating
·   Skin rash in some cases, such as in meningococcal meningitis
Signs in newborns
·   High fever
·   Constant crying
·   Excessive sleepiness or irritability
·   Inactivity or sluggishness
·   Poor feeding
·   A bulge in the soft spot on top of a baby's head (fontanel)
·   Stiffness in a baby's body and neck
Treatment:
Intravenous antibiotics
Cortisone medications

Prevention:
Careful hand-washing to especially before they eat and after using the toilet, spending time in a crowded public place or petting animals.
Don't share drinks, foods, straws, eating utensils, lip balms or toothbrushes with anyone else.
Maintain your immune system by getting enough rest, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet with plenty of fresh fruits, vegetables and whole grains.
Cover your mouth. When you need to cough or sneeze, be sure to cover your mouth and nose.
19.     
Disease:
Mycetoma

Pathogen:
Species of bacteria (Actinomycetoma) & fungi (Eumycetoma)
Transmission:
It most often occurs in the feet. It is most common in arid and semi-arid parts of the world.
Slow spreading skin infection
Local swelling
Pus on skin
Small hard painless nodules
Ulceration
Treatment:
·  Antifungals
·  Antibiotics
·  Treatment of any secondary infections
·  Amputation - in severe cases
·  Streptomycin injection, Dapsopne, Rifampicin, Minocycline, Amikacin, Oral cotrimoxasole, Itraconazole, Ketoconazole, surgery
20.     
Disease:
Mycoplasma pneumonia

Pathogen:
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Transmission:
From person to person.
Persistent fever
Dry cough
Malaise
Fever

In rare cases, the infection may become dangerous and cause damage to the heart or central nervous system.
Treatment:
Antibiotics.
Corticosteroids.
Immunomodulatory Therapy.
Prevention:
·  Sleep for 6-8 hrs in a night.
·  Eat a balanced diet.
·  Stay away from infected persons.
·  Wash hands before eating or after interacting with sick contacts.
21.  
Disease:
Pertussis (Whooping cough)

Pathogen:
Bordetella pertussis
Transmission:
By contact with airborne discharges from the mucous membranes of infected people.

Incubation period:
10-15 days
Early symptoms: cough, sneezing & runny nose.
Late symptoms: ever hacking cough followed by high intake of breath. Gasping
Prevention:
DPT vaccine
22.  
Disease:
Plague

Pathogen:
Yersinia (Pasteurella) pestis
Transmission:
By rats and other rodents. Vector is a flea, Xenopsylla cheopsis which feeds on infected rodents and may bite man.
Inflammation of the lymphatics, subcutaneous tissues and viscera; diffused haemorrhage into the skin.
Treatment:
Drugs: Streptomycin, Chloromycin and Kanamycin.

Prevention:
DDT is used to kill rat-fleas and rats.
23.  
Disease:
Pneumonia

Pathogen:
Diplococcus pneumoniae
Transmission:
Through contact with infected person

Incubation period:
1-3 days
Mucus collects in alveoli of the lungs. Restlessness, cough and fever
Treatment:
Antibiotics like tetracycline or penicillin G
24.     
Disease:
Scarlet fever (Scarlatina)

Pathogen:
Streptococcus pyogenes
Transmission:
Infection may occur through blood stream or skin and underlying tissues.
Sore throat, fever and a rash over the upper body that may spread to cover almost the entire body.
Treatment: Antibiotics
Prevention:
·  Wash hands often
·  Avoid sharing eating utensils, linens, towels or other personal items.
25.  
Disease:
Shigellosis (Bacillary dysentery)

Pathogen:
Shigella genus
Transmission:
From one infected person to the next.
From stool.
Dysentery due to poor hygiene.
Treatment:
Antibiotic treatment.
Prevention:
·  Wash hands often
·  Basic food safety precautions and disinfection of drinking water.
·  Drink only treated or boiled water.
·  Eat only cooked hot foods or fruits you peel yourself.
26.  
Disease:
Syphilis

Pathogen:
Treponema pallidum
Transmission:
Through sexual contact (VD). Also caused by kissing and using clothing of infected persons.

Incubation period:
15-20 days
Affects mucus membrane of genital tract, rectum and mouth
Antibiotics like penicillin G or ampicillin
27.  
Disease:
Tetanus (Lockjaw)

Pathogen:
Clostridium tetani (Gram +ve)
Transmission:
CNS of man contaminated with dust, soil or water.

Incubation period:
5-12 years
Toxin, tetanospasmin affects nervous system. Painful stiffness of the neck (lock jaw) and difficulty in swallowing; sensitivity to noise, fever. Prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers.
Prevention:
Anti-tetanus (TIG, tetanal immune globulin) injection or vaccination in childhood with tetanus toxoid.
28.     
Disease:
Trachoma

Pathogen:
Chlamydia trachomatis
Transmission:
By direct contact or using infective cloths of a patient.

Incubation period:
5-10 days
Inflammation of cornea, redness of eye and discomfort and pain. Probably leading to blindness.
Tetracycline and erythromycin as ophthalmic ointments
29.  
Disease:
Tuberculosis

Pathogen:
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Transmission:
By contact, i.e. coughing, sneezing, spitting, talking etc.

Incubation period:
2 weeks
Generally attacks the lungs but may affect central nervous system, circulatory system, lymphatic system, bones, joints, genitourinary system and skin. Bacteria release toxin-tuberculin, results in fever. Lungs are affected. Weakness and loss of weight.
Streptomycin and Para-amino salicylic acid (PAS) or BCG vaccination
30.     
Disease:
Typhoid fever

Pathogen:
Salmonella typhi
Transmission:
Ingestion of food or water adulterated with feces of an infected person.

Incubation period:
4 weeks
Continuous fever, headache and lethargy. It is followed by enlargement of spleen, pain in stomach and rose coloured rashes on body.
Drug: Chloramphenicol; inoculation is given every year.

See also:
List of viral diseases in Human: Causative Agent, Transmission, Symptoms, Prevention & Treatment

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