Saturday, September 1, 2012

Inventions & Discoveries in Biology - 3


CONTRIBUTION
DISCOVERED/INVENTED BY
1.           Interrelationship b/w genetic diversity & natural selection- Established
Murray (1972)
2.           Isolated and synthesized 3 polypeptides involved in the control of the anterior pituitary gland
Roger Guilleinin & Andrew Schally (1977)
3.           Isotope tracing
Hevesy G. (1923)
4.           IUD (Intrauterine Devices) for contraception
Richter (1909)
5.           Jumping genes (Transposons)
Mc Clintock
6.           Karyogamy during fertilization
Hertwig
7.           Klinefelter’s syndrome
Klinefelter (1922)
8.           Krebs’s cycle (Citric acid cycle)
Hans A. Krebs (1937)
9.           Ladder of nature or Scala nature (Great Chain of Being)
Aristotle (B.C 384-322)
10.         Largest chromosome number is for Ophioglossum reticulatum
Ninan C.A (Keralite)
11.         Leydig cells (interstitial cells)
Franz von Leydig (Germany)
12.         Life comes from life- proved
Francesco Redi
13.         Linkage and crossing over
Thomas Hunt Morgan
14.         Linkage of hereditary units
Bateson and Punnet (1906)
15.         LSD
Albert Hoffmann
16.         Lysosomes- discovered & named
de Duve (1955)
17.         Malaria parasites grow as cysts in Anopheles mosquito
Ronald Ross (1897)
18.         Malarial parasite (in Algiers, North Africa); Cause of Malaria
Charles Laveran (1880; French army surgeon)
19.         Microtome
His (1870)
20.         Microtubules
Robertis and Francis
21.         Milk pasteurization
Louis Pasteur
22.         Mitochondria
Kolliker (1857). In 1888 he isolated them
23.         Mitochondria- Observed
Altmann and C. Benda (1897)
24.         Mitochondria- Separated from the cell
Bensley R.R & Hoerr H.L (1934)
25.         Mitochondria: Isolated by ultracentrifugation
Claude A (1941)
26.         Mitosis- first account
A. Schelder (1873)
27.         Monoclonal antibodies
Niels, Kochlar & Milstein
28.         Morphine
Frederick Sirturner
29.         Mosquitoes transmits Malaria- Hypothesis
Manson (1894)
30.         MRI
Purcell and Bloch (1952)
31.         Mutation on agricultural plants
Gustafsson (1947)
32.         Mycobacterium leprae & Leprosy
Hansen (1873; Norway)
33.         Negri bodies in brain cells (it is diagnostic of Rabies)
Negri (1903; Italy)
34.         New cells originate from pre-existing cells
Rudolf Virchow (1858)
35.         Nitrogen cycle
Helriegel & Wilfarth (1888)
36.         Nucleic acids- Discovered and isolated
Friedrich Miescher (1869; Switzerland)
37.         Nucleolus (observed nucleolus from the skin of an eel)
Fontana F (1781)
38.         Nucleoplasm
Strasburger
39.         Nucleoproteins- Isolated from the pus cells
Miescher F (1870)
40.         Nucleotide sequence of alanine tRNA molecule of yeast
Holley R.M (1964)
41.         Nucleus of cell
Robert Brown (1831)
42.         Nucleus: Role in heredity
Herwig O. & Strasburger E (1885)
43.         Nurse culture technique (cellular totipotency)
Muir et al
44.         Oogenesis and spermatogenesis- Described
Boveri T. (1888)
45.         Oparin- Haldane theory: Experimentally proved
Harold C. Urey and Stanley Miller (1953)
46.         Open heart surgery
Walton Lillehal
47.         Origin of life on earth
Oparin A.I
48.         Ovarian follicle, mammal or human
R.V Graaf
49.         Ovary human- first described
Herophilus
50.         Ovum- Mammalian
Karl Von Baer (1827)
51.         Oxygen is released during photosynthesis
Priestly J & Ingenhouz J (1772)
52.         Paper chromatography (PPC)
Izmallow and Schraiber (1938)
53.         Parthenogenesis- Natural
Charles Bonnet (1745)
54.         Patau’s syndrome
Patau K.
55.         Penicillin
Alexander Fleming (1928)
56.         Phagocytosis: Role in immunity
Metchiinkoff (1882)
57.         Phase contrast microscope
Zernike (1955)
58.         Phosphocreatine: Role in muscle contraction
Eggleton (1927)
59.         Photophosphorylation in chloroplast
Arnon
60.         Phototherapy
Finsen N.R.
61.         Phylogeny: Molecular approach
Florkin M (1966)
62.         Pinocytosis
Lewis W.H (1931)
63.         Pituitary gland: Role in carbohydrate metabolism
Houssay (1924)
64.         Plague vaccine in India (as prophylactic measure against plague)
Haffkine (1898)
65.         Plants are made of cells
Shleiden M.J
66.         Plants have life
Boss J.C.
67.         Plastids
Ernest Haeckel (1866)
68.         Polio vaccine
Salk J. and Sabin (1957)
69.         Polymorphism and taxonomy
Ford E.B (1940)
70.         Poriferans (sponges) are animals
Ellis
71.         Presence of cristae in mitochondria- Showed
Palade G.E (1952)
72.         Prion
Prusiner (1997)
73.         Process of life
Romer A.S (1972)
74.         Proteinoid microsphere- Produced
Sydney Fox (1950)
75.         Protoplasm is a living matter in protozoans
Felix Dujardin (1835)
76.         Pteramycin
Finlay
77.         Purines and pyrimidines are equal amount in DNA
Chargaff E. (1950)
78.         Pyrosomes- Identified
Duve C. De (1952)
79.         Quantasomes in chloroplast
Park and Pon (1960)
80.         Quantitative inheritance
Koelreuter J.G (1763)
81.         Radioimmuno assay technique for the estimation of blood hormones
Rosalyn Talow (1977)
82.         RBC Described
Swammerdam (1658)
83.         Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology
Cohen & Boyer (1973)
84.         Recombinant DNA- First
Berg P. (1972)
85.         Reflex action Concept
Hall (18330
86.         Regeneration in Hydra & Sponge
Trambli, Vilson
87.         Regulatory genes
Jacob F and Monod (1961)
88.         Relationship between lactic acid and muscle contraction
Hopkins (1907)
89.         Reproductive system in flower
Grew (1682)
90.         Reserpine
Jall Vakil
91.         Respiration in animals - Showed its nature
Lavoisier (1778)
92.         Restriction endonuclease  enzymes
Daniel Nathans, Hamilton O. Smith & Werner Arber (1978)
93.         Rh factor in blood
Land Steiner and Weiner (1940)
94.         Ribosomes (Animal cell)
Palade
95.         RNA directed DNA synthesis in some tumor viruses
Temin H.M (1963)
96.         RNA: Role in protein synthesis
Casperssoni and Brachet (1950)
97.         Role of environment on the Inheritance of acquired characters
Buffon
98.         Rust resistance high yielding wheat varieties
Borloug (1970)
99.         Sertoli cells
Enricho Sertoli (Italy)
100.      Sex chromosomes in grasshopper
Mc Clung C.E (1902)




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