Saturday, February 18, 2012

Nobel Winners in Medicine and Physiology


Name of scientist
Year
Topic of study or discovery
Emil Adolf Von Behring
1901
Serum therapy for giving acquired passive immunity against diphtheria.
Sir Ronald Ross
1902
Study of life cycle of malaria. He laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it.
Niels Ryberg Finsen
1903
Treatment of dermal diseases (especially lupus vulgaris) with light radiation.
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov
1904
Physiology of digestion.
Robert Koch
1905
Studies on tuberculosis
Camillo Golgi and Ramon Cajal
1906
Structure of nervous system and control mechanism
E. Buchner
1907
Named Zymase enzyme of yeast 
Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran
Role of protozoans in causing diseases
Paul Ehrlich and Ilya Metchnikoff
1908
Work on body resistance and phagocytosis (work on immunity)
Emil Theodor Kocher
1909
Physiology, pathology and surgery of thyroid gland
Albrecht Kossel
1910
Chemistry of cell nucleus (including proteins, purines and pyrimidines)
Allvar Gullstrand
1911
Study of Dioptrics of eye
Alexis Carrel
1912
Vascular suture and transplantation of blood vessels and organs
Charles Robert Richet
1913
Work on Anaphylaxis
Robert Barany
1914
Physiology and pathology of vestibular apparatus
1915-18 not awarded
Jules Bordet
1919
Discoveries relating to immunology
Schack August & Steenberg Krogh
1920
Anatomy and physiology of blood capillaries (capillary motor regulating mechanism)
1921 not awarded
Archibald Vivian Hill
1922
discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle
Otto Meyerhof
Study of correlation between oxygen consumption and metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle cells.
Sir Frederick Grant Banting and John James Richard Macleod
1923
Discovery of insulin
Wilhelm Einthoven
1924
ECG
1925 not awarded
Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger
1926
Cancer, discovery of Spiroptera carcinoma
T. Svedberg
Discovery of centrifuge
Julius Wagner-Jauregg
1927
Therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica
Charles Jules Henri Nicolle
1928
Research on typhus
Christiaan Eijkman
1929
Discovery of the antineuritic vitamin
Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins
Discovery of growth stimulating vitamins
Karl Landsteiner
1930
ABO blood groups in man
Otto Heinrich Warburg
1931
Nature and action of respiratory enzymes
Edgar Douglas Adrian and Sir Charles Scott Sherrington
1932
Physiology of nervous system (functions of neurons)
Thomas Hunt Morgan
1933
Role of chromosomes in heredity
William Parry Murphy, George Richards Minot & George Hoyt Whipple
1934
Liver therapy against anaemia
Hans Spemann
1935
Discovery of organiser effect in embryonic development
Sir Henry Hallett Dale & Otto Loewi
1936
Transmission of nerve impulses by chemical transmitter
Albert von Szent-Györgyi Nagyrapolt
1937
For his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, and chemical changes in muscle contraction with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid.
Corneille Jean François Heymans
1938
Role of carotid sinus in regulation of respiration
Gerhard Domagk
1939
Antibacterial effects of sulphonamide drugs (prontosil)
1940-42 not awarded
Henrik Carl Peter Dam
1943
Discovery of vitamin K
Edward Adelbert Doisy
Chemical nature of vitamin K
Herbert Spencer Gasser & Joseph Erlanger
1944
Discoveries relating to differentiated functions of single nerve fibre
Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst Boris Chain & Sir Howard Walter Florey
1945
Penicillin and its curative effect in some infectious diseases
Hermann Joseph Muller
1946
Production of mutations by X-ray irradiations in Drosophila
Sumner J.B
1946
Crystallised the first enzyme urease, suggested that enzymes are structurally proteins
Carl Ferdinand Cori & Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz
1947
Catalytic conversion of glycogen (Cori cycle)
Bernardo Alberto Houssay
Discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar
Paul Hermann Muller
1948
Properties of DDT as contact insecticide
Walter Rudolf Hess
1949
Discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs
Antonio Caetano de  Abreu Freire Egas Moniz
Discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses
Edward Calvin Kendall, Tadeus Reichstein & Philip Showalter Hench
1950
Hormones of adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects
Max Theiler
1951
Yellow fever and methods to control it
Selman Abraham Waksman
1952
Discovery of streptomycin- first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis
Fritz Albert Lipmann
1953
Discovery of coenzyme A and its role in metabolism of carbohydrates
Hans Adolf Krebs
Krebs’ cycle
John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller & Frederick Chapman Robbins
1954
Ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in tissue culture
Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell
1955
Nature and mode of action of oxidative enzymes in the cell
André Frédéric Cournand, Werner Forssmann & Dickinson W. Richards
1956
Heart catheterization and pathological changes in circulatory system
Daniel Bovet
1957
Action of some synthetic substances on vessels and muscles
George Wells Beadle & Edward Lawrie Tatum
1958
Genes act by regulating definite chemical events (One gene one enzyme concept)
Joshua Lederberg
Lederberg and Tautum gave genetic recombination in bacteria
Severo Ochoa & Arthur Kornberg
1959
In vitro synthesis of polynucleotides of nucleic acids
Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet & Peter Brian Medawar
1960
Discovery of acquired immunity tolerance to tissue transplant
Georg Von Bekesy
1961
discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea (internal ear)
Calvin M.
1961
Discovered the path of carbon in photosynthesis
Francis Harry Compton Crick, James Dewey Watson & Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins
1962
Double helical model of DNA and its significance for information transfer in living material
Sir John Carew Eccles, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin & Andrew Fielding Huxley
1963
Transmission of nerve impulses along nerve fibre
(Concerning  the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the nerve cell membrane)
Konrad Bloch & Feodor Lynen
1964
Biosynthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids
François Jacob, André Lwoff & Jacques Monod
1965
Operon concept; genetic regulation of coenzymes
Peyton Rous
1966
Discovery of tumour-inducing viruses (first oncogenic virus- Rous Sarcoma virus (RSV)
Charles Brenton Huggins
Causes and hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer
Ragnar Granit, Haldan Keffer Hartline & George Wald
1967
Chemical and physiological visual processes in eye.
Robert W. Holley, Har Gobind Khorana & Marshall W. Nirenberg
1968
Deciphering of genetic code and its function in protein synthesis; Holley got Nobel prize for giving the structure of RNA.
Max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey & Salvador E. Luria
1969
Reproduction in viruses (replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses)
Julius Axelrod, Bernard Kartz and von Euler
1970
Humoral transmitter substances and their role  nerve terminals
Norman Borlaugh
Nobel prize in peace for developing high yielding, Mexican dwarf disease resistant varieties of wheat like Sonora 64 and Lerma Rojo.
Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.
1971
Role of cyclic AMP in hormone action
Gerald M. Edelman & Rodney R. Porter
1972
Chemical structure of antibodies (immunoglobulins)
Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz & Nikolaas Tinbergen
1973
Organisation and elicitation of individual dancing movements and social behaviour pattern in insects
Albert Claude, Christian de Duve & George E. Palade
1974
Ultrastructure of cell and structural and functional organisation of cell.
David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco & Howard Martin Temin
1975
Concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell (Reverse transcription and tumor viruses)
Baruch S. Blumberg & D. Carleton Gajdusek
1976
Origin and dissemination of cancer and infectious diseases
Roger Guillemin & Andrew V. Schally
1977
Peptide hormone production in brain
Rosalyn Yalow
For the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones
Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans & Hamilton O. Smith
1978
Restriction endonucleases enzymes that break giant molecules DNA into manageable pieces and produce sticky ends.
Allan M. Cormack & Godfrey N. Hounsfield
1979
Development of computerised assisted tomography (CAT) scanner. 
Baruj Benacerraf, Jean Dausset & George D. Snell
1980
Study of heredity qualities determining transplantability of tissue between individuals and affect susceptibility of persons to important group of diseases.
Sanger
Nobel prize in chemistry twice- one for structure of insulin (1958) and second time for base sequence in DNA (1980)
David H. Hubel & Torsten N. Wiesel
1981
Collaborative discoveries concerning information processing in visual system.
Roger W. Sperry
Functional specialisation of cerebral hemispheres.
Sune K. Bergstrom, Bengt I. Samuelsson & John R. Vane
1982
Isolation and identification of numerous prostaglandins and study of their biological effects
Klug A.
1982
Nucleic acids and protein complexes
Barbara McClintock
1983
She is called Lady Mendel as she was first lady geneticist. She discovered mobile genetic elements (floating genes or jumping genes or Transposon) in Maize
Niels K. Jerne, Georges J.F. Köhler & César Milstein
1984
Specificity in development and control of immune system and iscovery of principle for production of monoclonal antibodies
Michael S. Brown & Joseph L. Goldstein
1985
Regulation of cholesterol metabolism and cholesterol related diseases
Stanley Cohen & Rita Levi-Montalcini
1986
Discovery of growth factors
Susumu Tonegawa
1987
Discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity and body’s immune defence.
Deisenhoffer J.,  
R. Huber and   
H. Michel
1988
Determination of 3D structure of photosynthetic reaction centre
Sir James W. Black, Gertrude B. Elion & George H. Hitchings
For discoveries leading to a series of new drugs and their effects
Cech and Altmann
1989
Nobel prize in chemistry for the remarkable discovery of RNA acting as catalytic enzyme and thus the monopoly of enzyme to be protein is changed. Ribozyme and rnase-P are 2 such non-protein enzymes
J. Michael Bishop & Harold E. Varmus
Discovered oncogenes related with cancer
Joseph E. Murray & E. Donnall Thomas
1990
Discovery of medicine for organ and cell transplantation. Dr. Murray made first successful human kidney transplant in identical twins
Erwin Neher & Bert Sakmann
1991
Function of single ion channel in the cells
Edmond H. Fischer & Edwin G. Krebs
1992
Reverse protein phosphorylation with respect to ATP generator.
Richard J. Roberts & Phillip A. Sharp
1993
Deciphering eukaryotic gene structure and discovered split genes (having exons and introns) in eukaryotes
Kary B. Mullis
Developed technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This allows to take millions of copies of DNA within hours
Smith M.
Developed site directed mutagenesis. This allows scientists to choose sites for producing mutations
Alfred G. Gilman & Martin Rodbell
1994
Discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"
Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nusslein-Volhard & Eric F. Wieschaus
1995
Genetic mechanism to control early embryonic development using Drosophila
Peter C. Doherty and Rolf M. Zinkerangel
1996
They discovered how the body detects virus-infected cells (discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence). Their discovery has laid a foundation for the construction of improved vaccines and new therapies against cancer, multiple sclerosis and diabetes.
Stanley Prusiner
1997
He discovered ‘prions’ (a new biological principle of infection) which are proteins having no RNA or DNA
Robert E. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro and Ferid Murad
1998
Nitric oxide as a signalling molecule” in the cardiovascular system and their discoveries led to the use of the Viagra an anti-impotence drug
Gunter Blobel
1999
Proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell (contributed to the understanding of a number of human diseases including cystic fibrosis, Alzheimer’s disease and AIDS).
Carrison. A, Paul Greengard and Eric Kandel
2000
Carrison: discovered dopamine
Kandel: discovered neurotransmitters.
Greengard: transmission of impulses by neurotransmitters
Hartwell L., Timothy Hunt and Paul Nurse
2001
Discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle
Sydney Brenner,
H. Robert Howvitz and John E. Sulzton
2002
Discoveries concerning 'genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death
Paul Lautebur and Peter Mansfield
2003
Discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging
Linda Buck and Richard Axel
2004
Discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system
Barry J. Marshell, J. Robbin Warren
2005
Discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease
Andrew Fair, Craig Mellow
2006
Discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA
Mario R. Capecchi,
Sir Martin J. Evans &
Oliver Smithies
2007
 Discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells
Luke Montainer & Barray Sinoosi
2008
Discovered HIV.
Harold Sir Hossen
Discovered Papiloma virus responsible for uterus cancer.
Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Jack W. Szostak & Carol W. Greider
2009
Discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase
Robert G. Edwards
2010
Development of in vitro fertilization
Bruce A. Beutler, Jules A. Hoffmann
2011
Discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity
Ralph M. Steinman
Discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity
Sir John B Gurdon & Shinya Yamanaka
2012
For the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent.

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