Saturday, February 18, 2012

Inventions & Discoveries in Biology -2


CONTRIBUTION
DISCOVERED/INVENTED BY
1.           Crescograph
J.C. Bose
2.           Crossing over in Drosophila- cytological proof
Stern (1931)
3.           Cryosurgery
Henry Schwann
4.           Crystalline ribonuclease Formed
Kunitz (1940)
5.           CT scan (Computer Assisted Tomography (CAT)
Allan Mcleod Cormack and God frey Newbold Hounsfield (1972)
6.           Culture of cell or tissue in nutrient medium
Haber Landt G. (1902; Germany)
7.           Cyanophage
Saffermann and Morris
8.           Cyclosis
Amici G.B.
9.           Cytochrome oxidase
Warburg O. (1926)
10.         Cytochromes
Mac Munn C.A. (1886)
11.         DDT and its Insecticidal properties
Paul Muller (1939)
12.         Demonstrated that during gamete formation, chromosome number becomes half and that chromosome number is constant for each species
Van Beneden E. (1887)
13.         Dialyzer
Colf
14.         Differential interference contrast microscope
Merton and Smith
15.         Digestion mechanism Described by X-ray
Canon (1904)
16.         Dinosaur- First fossil
Mandel and his wife
17.         DNA
Avery O.T (1944)
18.         DNA - Test for locating DNA in cell
Feutgen A (1924)
19.         DNA Double helix model
Watson, Crick & Wilkins
20.         DNA fingerprinting
Alec Jeffrey (Britain; 1985)
21.         DNA in mitochondria
Nass & Afzeluis (1963)
22.         DNA is an important component of a gene
Chase M & Hershey A.D (1952)
23.         DNA is hereditary material (experiment in rat)
Frederic Griffith
24.         DNA- Synthesised artificially
Kornberg A. (1956; USA)
25.         DNA: Proved Semi-conservative replication
Meselson & Stahl
26.         Dolly, the first cloned sheep
Ian Wilmut (1996)
27.         Double fertilization in angiosperm
Nawaschin and Guingard
28.         Down’s syndrome (mongolism)
Langdon Down (1866)
29.         ECG (Electrocardiogram) Mechanism
Einthoven (1906)
30.         ECG -first recorded
Waller
31.         Edwards syndrome
J.H Edwards
32.         EEG (Electroencephalograph)
Hans Berger
33.         EEG: First human EEG
Hans Berger (1929)
34.         Electron microscope
Knoll M. and Ruska E. (1932)
35.         Electrophoresis
Tiselvis and Longsworth (1937)
36.         Elementary particles in mitochondrion
Chance and Parsons, Smith & Fernandez Moran (1963)
37.         Endomitosis
Dutrochet
38.         Endoplasmic reticulum
Porter K.R, Claude & Fullman (1945)
39.         Entamoeba gingivalis (mouth amoeba)
Gross
40.         Entamoeba histolytica
Losch (1875)
41.         Entamoeba hystolytica- pathogenic nature
Lambl (1890)
42.         Enzymes
Kuhne (1878)
43.         Episome
Jacob & Wollman
44.         Evolution above species level
Rensch (1960)
45.         Evolution by gene duplication
Ohno. S (1970)
46.         Evolution in plants: Role of variation and hybridization
Stebbin (1950)
47.         Evolution of man
Leakey (1960)
48.         Evolutionary ecology
Pianka (1974)
49.         Fertilization in frog
George Newport
50.         Fertilization in plants
Strasburger
51.         Fertilization involves fusion of nuclei from 2 gametes
O. Hertwig (1875)
52.         Fingerprint is dissimilar person to person. Used fingerprint in the field of Forensics
Sir Francis Galton
53.         First living things originated from non-living things
Alexander I. Oparin (Russia) and J.B.S Haldane (Britain)
54.         Five-kingdom classification
Whittaker R.H
55.         Flower- its reproductive parts
Grew (1682)
56.         Fluid mosaic model of plasma membrane
Singer S.J and Nicolson G.L. (1972)
57.         Foot & Mouth disease: First viral disease of animals
Loeffler F. and Frosch A. (1898)
58.         Fossils are the remnants of organisms living in past
Xenophanes (576-480 BC)
59.         Fossils- Showed Nature and formation
Demaillet (1665-1738)
60.         Found the cause of Kuru (a fatal degenerative disease)
Daniel Carleton Gaddusik (1976)
61.         Four-kingdom classification
Copeland (1956)
62.         Gaseous exchange: Method for measuring gaseous exchange in living tissue by monometry
Warburg O. (1923)
63.         Gases exchange of the blood group
Lodwig (1872)
64.         Gene map
Thomas Hunt Morgan (1930)
65.         Gene therapy- First successful attempt
French Anderson (sep 14, 1990)
66.         Genetic code
Nirenberg & Matthaei
67.         Genetic code is triplet code
Crick F.H.C & Others (1961)
68.         Genetic drift in a population of Drosophila
Spencer (1947)
69.         Genetic drifts: Observed role of genetic drifts in small populations
Moody (1947)
70.         Genetic transduction in bacteria
Griffith F. (1928)
71.         Geological time scale- first developed
Araduiana (1760)
72.         Giant salivary gland chromosomes
Balbiani (1881)
73.         Glycolysis (EMP pathway)
Embeden, Mayerhof & Parnass
74.         Glyoxysomes
Briedenbach
75.         Golgi bodies
Camillo Golgi (1898)
76.         Gram staining
Christian Gram (1884)
77.         Green revolution
Norman E. Borlaug (1970)
78.         Haemophilia
John Cotto (1803)
79.         Heart transplantation surgery
Christian Bernard
80.         Heartbeat: Investigated on heart and Heartbeat
Stannuis (1852)
81.         Heat production in nerves
Hill (1926)
82.         Helicobacter pylori, the ulcer causing bacteria
Barry J. Marshal and J. Robin Warren
83.         Heteroploidy Concept
Winkler H (1916)
84.         Heterothallism in fungi
Blakeslee
85.         HIV
Luke Montainer
86.         Honeybee dance
Von Frisch
87.         Hormones
Bayliss and Starling (1903)
88.         Hormones: Influence on enzyme activity
Cori (1945)
89.         Hormones: Role in the metamorphosis of insects
Kolliker and Muller Kopec (1922)
90.         Human body is composed of complex subsystems
Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)
91.         Human gene therapy
Martin Clive
92.         Human Genome Project
U.S Department of Energy & National Institute of Health (2003)
93.         Hydroxy urea is effective for sickle cell anaemia
Samuel Charech (1995)
94.         Induced biochemical mutation by X-ray irradiation in Neurospora
Beadle and Tautum (1941)
95.         Infantile amaurotic idiocy (Tay- Sach’s disease)
Warren Tay and Sach (1881)
96.         Influence of blood ions on heart circulation
Ringer (1880)
97.         Insulin
Sir Frederick Grant Banding; J.J.R. Mc Leod (1922)
98.         Insulin is effective for Diabetes
Banding, Best
99.         Interaction b/w tumour viruses and genetic material of the cell
Renato Dulbeceo, Howard Martin Temin & David Baltimore (1975)
100.      Internal parts of human body- Dissected and studied
Vesalius




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