Saturday, February 18, 2012

Inventions & Discoveries in Biology-1


CONTRIBUTION
DISCOVERED/ INVENTED BY
1.           ABA (Abscisic acid)
Addicott
2.           Adrenalin
Schaffer, Oliver
3.           All living beings were arisen from primordial fluid
Anaximander (611-524 BC)
4.           Allopatric speciation: Observed its early stages
Ford E.B (1949)
5.           Amino acid sequence of protein
Sanger
6.           Amoeba
Roesel Von Rosenhof
7.           Anaerobic release of energy (Yeast & Mould)
Louis Pasteur (1878)
8.           Animal body is made up of cells
Theodor Schwann (1839)
9.           Animal cloning- First (frogs from tadpole cells)
Robert Briggs and Thomas King (1952)
10.         Animals start development as an egg
William Harvey
11.         Anthrax bacillus bacteria
Robert Koch (1876)
12.         Anthrax vaccine
Louis Pasteur
13.         Antibody against Rabies
Louis Pasteur
14.         Antitoxin against Diphtheria
Won Berring
15.         Archaeopteryx-  Identified the fossil
Leopold Cuvier
16.         Artificial antigen
Land Steiner
17.         Artificial gene
Hargovind Khorana (1969)
18.         Artificial heart
Michael dibake
19.         Artificial parthenogenesis
Loeb J. (1900)
20.         Artificial polyploidy  by blocking cell division using colchicine
Blakeslee A.F (1937)
21.         Artificial RNA
Severo Ochoa (1959; USA)
22.         Artificial system of classification
Aristotle
23.         Aspirin
Dresser
24.         Astral rays
Fol
25.         ATP
Lohmann K (1929)
26.         ATP Cycle
Lipmann
27.         ATP: Role in muscle contraction
Szent Cyorgyi (1941)
28.         Bacteria
Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1683)
29.         Bacteria- First viral disease of bacteria
Twort F.W. (1915)
30.         Bacteria- Pure culture
Lister (1878)
31.         Bacteria: Transduction
Zinder & Lederberg
32.         Bacteria: Transformation
Avery O.T, Mc Leod C.M and Mc Carty M (1944)
33.         Bacteriophage
Towrt and De Herelle (1915)
34.         Barr body (sex chromatin)
Barr and Bertram (1949)
35.         BCG vaccine
Calmette and Guerin (1921; France)
36.         BHC (Gammexane) synthesis
Michael Faraday
37.         Binomial nomenclature (1753)
Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778)
38.         Biocatalysts
Buchner
39.         Biochemical evolution
Wald (1952)
40.         Biogeographical realms
Wallace A.R
41.         Biological synthesis of DNA with template
Kornberg A.
42.         Bioluminescence
E.R Dubois
43.         Biomolecular model or Sandwich model of plasma membrane
Davson and Danielli (1935)
44.         Biosynthesis of glycogen on liver
Bernard (1857)
45.         Blood capillaries
Marcello Malpighi
46.         Blood circulation
William Harvey (1578-1657)
47.         Blood circulation- Showed
Malpighi (1660)
48.         Blood coagulation- Explained
Moravits (1905)
49.         Blood group (AB)
De Castello and Sturli (1902)
50.         Blood group, O
De Castello and Sturli (1902)
51.         Blood groups (A, B and O)
Carl Land Steiner (1900)
52.         Blood pressure- Measured
Stephen Hales (1773)
53.         Brain & eye connection- Research
Roger W. Sperry, David Hubel & Torsten Wiessel (1981)
54.         Bundles of His and physiology of Auriculo-ventricular node
His (1893)
55.         C3 pathway of plants
Melvin Calvin
56.         C4 pathway of plants
Hatch and Slack
57.         Cancer
Robert Welberg
58.         Carbon dating
Libby W.F
59.         Carotenoids (chemical structure)
Karrer, Kuhn & Lederer
60.         Cascade reaction
Sutherlands
61.         Cat cry syndrome
Lejuene
62.         Cell
Robert Hooke (1665)
63.         Cell cycle: stages
Howard & Pele (1951)
64.         Cell division
Hofmeister
65.         Cell- First description of cell (RBC)
Jan Swammerdam (1658)
66.         Cell mediated response
Dausset, Snell & Benaceraff
67.         Cell theory
Schleiden and Schwann
68.         Central dogma
Crick F.H.C (1918)
69.         Centriole- Observed
van Beneden E. (1875)
70.         Chemical nature of TMV
Bawden F.C. and Pirie N.W. (1938)
71.         Chemical structure of antibody
Gerald M. Edelman & Rodney R. Porter (1972)
72.         Chemotherapy
Paul Erlich
73.         Chloroform
James Simpson
74.         Chloromycetin (antibiotic)
Burk Holder
75.         Chlorophyll structure & isolation
Willstatter and Stoll (1953)
76.         Chloroplast
Schimper
77.         Chlortetracycline (isolated from Streptomyces aureofacieus)
Subba Rao and Duggar (1948)
78.         Cholera bacteria
Robert Koch
79.         Cholera toxin
Louis Pasteur
80.         Chromatin
Fleming W (1879)
81.         Chromatography
Michael Tswett (1906)
82.         Chromomeres (granules on chromosomes)
Pfitzner W (1882)
83.         Chromosomal basis of heredity
Sutton (1904)
84.         Chromosome number in man
Tijo and Levan
85.         Chromosomes (nuclear filaments)
Hofmeister
86.         Chromosomes (nuclear filaments) - described.
Anton Schneider (1823)
87.         Chromosomes -First experiment on Chromosomes (using fruit fly)
Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945)
88.         Chromosomes-Lamp brush
W. Flemming (1982)
89.         Cleavage in frog
Prevost and Dumas
90.         Cleavage of the frog’s egg-Described cell division for the first time by studying Cleavage of the frog’s egg.
Prevost P &Dumas J.B.A (1824)
91.         Cloned a mammal- First (Dolly)
Ian Wilmut (1996)
92.         CO2: Role in regulation of breathing
Haldane and Priestley (1905)
93.         Coacervates- Produced
Oparin A.I (1924)
94.         Coenzyme A
Lipmann C. (1945)
95.         Colour blindness (Daltonism)
Hornerd (1876)
96.         Complement factor (alexin)
Bordet
97.         Compound microscope
Zacharias Janssen (1590)
98.         Conditioned reflex
Pavlov I.P.
99.         Contraceptive pills
Pinkus
100.      Cortisone
Edward Calvin



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